PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Civil War Timeline' - thora
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Since the early days of American colonization slaves were used by the dominant white population. Roughly 100 Years after the declaration of independence, the north abolished slavery, but the south continued to own and use slaves. The south sought independence from the north; while the north wanted to keep the union together. A war was inevitable, but nobody knew it would end up being so divisive.
The south had a much stronger army then the north. They had better leadership, and a better set of skills. Robert E. Lee led the confederate forces, and George Meade and Ulysses S. Grant led the Union (both at different times)
Fought in the U.S. From South Pennsylvania to New Mexico, almost 3 million people were involved in the war, and many others supported their efforts
Many native Americans joined the north in their war efforts to get back at the south
For southern states, 800,000 men were still enslaved so Lincoln used a different version of Emancipation Proclamation, where all the slaves were free, but the North had to pay for them for them to become free citizens
At the beginning of the war, there was lots of enthusiasm about fighting, but after the blood shed, and the economy, and the lack of motivation to fight, not as many people were volunteering anymore, so the North and South resorted to conscription (1862)
The union didn’t have to fight if they paid the government $300, and the confederates didn't have to fight if they hired a substitute to fight
The war was often called a rich mans war, and a poor mans fight.
Grant’s leadership was very different. His Union army doubled the population of the south, so he often sent his men into sacrificial raids because he knew he could regain men, but the south could not (served as leader of Union army from 1864-1865)
In 1864 they had surrounded the Richmond capital, and were continuing to push back the Confederates
The Union destroyed towns, and cities that they won so the confederates couldn’t regain territory
The confederates burned and destroyed the cities that they passed too, to slow them down
After the civil war, the south laid in ruins. Economically, politically, and socially the land was destroyed from South Carolina to southern Georgia. There was no government left. No banks(therefore no money) courts, judges, and police. No transportation, and transportation routes, and plantation systems collapsed because of the freedom of slaves.
After the civil war the slaves were free to do what they wished. African Americans were strengthened by the freedom, which reunited them with families, and gave them equal rights. They started to choose last names, and began working for themselves.
Near the end of the war, Freedmen’s Bureau was created to help refugees, freedmen, and African Americans. At first it gave food, and clothes, then started offering education and jobs and land. Their primary focus was on African Americans so they could help them adjust to their new freedom.
Got Teachers to come from the north, to teach the students (children and adults) who were eager to learn.
They also tried to get the African Americans to sign labour agreements with planters, but the planters often cheated the men and women in their contracts because they couldn`t read/write
African Americans also wanted to own their own land. They were given 40 acres of land to help re-create their lives, until Andrew Johnson (President) re-ordered the land to its former owner
The reconstruction involved rebuilding and repairing war damages, restructuring southern society by giving rights to former enslaved African Americans, and readmitting southern states back to the Union.
Lincoln did not want to punish the south, he only wanted to restore the union.
Near the end of the war he created a plan for peace that would be shown once the war concluded. He would offer amnesty/pardon to all southerners who swore loyalty to the U.S.
Lincoln also urged that all African American who could read and write, and served in the Union army were allowed to vote
Lincoln wanted charity for all, but when he realized that wasn’t possible he began to talk with Radical Congressional leaders. At this crucial point, he was assassinated
“Ours is and ever shall be a government of white men.”
Johnson, and Lincoln wanted equality of race in the south, except the southerners wanted to follow the quote listed above.
Many southern states still did not treat African Americans equally which let them pass a series of laws known as the black codes
The black codes made it seem like the African Americans were still enslaved. They were not allowed to do anything, but work on farms, have steady work, handle weapons, serve on juries, vote, and testify against whites
The north was alarmed and outraged by this. In 1866 they made the Civil Rights Bill which enforced power to protect the rights of freed men and women.
Congress passed this in June 1866 fearing that the Civil rights act might be overturned in court
The amendment gave citizenship to include African Americans and required that no state deny any person the equal protection of the laws
prohibited confederate political leaders from paying confederate war debts, and barred them from holding public office
1866 congressional election was important because it would reveal if the congress was stronger then the president. Congress needed to win in order to pass these laws, and control the direction of reconstruction since Johnson was not in any means willing to do so.
Congress won, and was given a mandate to enact their own reconstruction program