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Period One-5\% of Questions. Period I – Technological and Environmental Transformations to 600 B.C.E Key Concept 1.1. Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth Key Concept 1.2. The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies

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period one 5 of questions

Period One-5% of Questions

Period I – Technological and Environmental Transformations to 600 B.C.E

Key Concept 1.1. Big Geography and the Peopling of the Earth

Key Concept 1.2. The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies

Key Concept 1.3. The Development and Interactions of Early Agricultural, Pastoral and Urban Societies

big geography
Big Geography
  • Global nature of world history
  • Human migration from Africa-Eurasia-Australia-Americas
paleolithic age
Paleolithic Age
  • Human adaptation and mobility
  • Relatively egalitarian-small kinship groups
  • Hunters, gatherers, traders
  • Technologies-fire, tools
  • Culture-cave art
transition paleolithic to neolithic
Transition: Paleolithic to Neolithic
  • After living for over 200,000 years as foragers…
  • 10,000 years ago, people gradually gave up a nomadic, hunting and gathering lifestyle and settled down.
  • Was it intentional? (sedentary trap)

Changes occurred due to:

The Great Thaw: Global Climate Change (warmer… food production easier)

Population Growth (migration until no places left)

origins of farming
Origins of Farming
  • 11,000 ya Fertile Crescent and the Nile (wheat)
  • 8000 ya China (rice) and Papua New Guinea (taro and yams)
  • 5000 ya West Africa (millet and sorghum)
  • 4000 ya Mesoamerica (maize, squash) and Andes (potatoes)
positive effects of neolithic revolution
Positive Effects of Neolithic Revolution
  • Increased food production (until population catches up again)
  • More diverse foodstuffs possible
  • Textile production
  • Metallurgy (working of gold, copper, bronze, iron)
  • Secondary Products Revolution—innovations in agriculture and animal husbandry (milk, stirrups, plows, tools…)
downsides of agriculture
Downsides of Agriculture
  • Nutrition declined (H & G varied diet)
  • Starvation more likely (reliance on one crop and on nature, increased vulnerability)
  • More work (less leisure time)
  • More patriarchal (public vs private sphere)
  • People got shorter initially and more tooth decay
  • Increased infant mortality (more kids)
  • Higher disease rates (more dense pop)
  • Life expectancy declined
  • Increased class divisions
social effects of agriculture
Social Effects of Agriculture
  • Women probably first to realize plans grew from seeds and Control which plants grew where over time
  • Domestication of animals
  • Women build homes and farmed; men hunted further afield
  • Women involved in hearth, courtyard, and field—food production, informal education, child-rearing, arts, music and religious ritual.
  • Children became busier as they helped around the home
  • Surplus over time led to specialization in the community
  • Land ownership led to patriarchal societies and lower status for women
  • Status and power became more important
human impact on environment
Human Impact on Environment

Soil erosion


Contamination of water sources

Dependency on land and certain crops

nomadic groups continue
Nomadic groups continue

Conflict (wealth of agricultural surplus societies)

Peaceful exchange of technology, ideas, products and people

  • Agricultural surplus
  • Specialization of labor
  • Cities
  • Complex institutions
  • Stratified social hierarchies
  • Long distance trade
  • Competition
  • Religion
  • Environmental challenges
  • Violence
  • Monumental architecture
  • Urban planning
  • Arts and artisanship
  • Systems of record keeping
  • Legal codes
  • Literature
  • Social Hierarchies
  • Patriarchy
  • Technological advancements
period one civilizations religions
Period One Civilizations/Religions
  • Mesopotamia
  • Egypt
  • Indus Valley (Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa)
  • Shang
  • Olmec
  • Chavin
  • Pastoral people
  • Pastoral advancements-weapons and transportation
  • Polytheism
  • Theocracies
  • The Vedic Religion
  • Hebrew Monotheism
  • Zoroastrianism