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HISTORY OF HEARING TESTING. Audiology. Audio - Latin…to hear, pertaining to hearing Logy - Greek…logus…science Therefore the science of hearing and hearing disorders. Facets of audiology. Discovery Evaluation Rehabilitation. Lineage of Audiology.

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audiology
Audiology
  • Audio - Latin…to hear, pertaining to hearing
  • Logy - Greek…logus…science
  • Therefore the science of hearing and hearing disorders
facets of audiology
Facets of audiology
  • Discovery
  • Evaluation
  • Rehabilitation
lineage of audiology
Lineage of Audiology
  • Originated during and just after WW II (1945-46)
  • Originally audiologists were SLP’s or ENT’s
  • Father of Audiology is Raymond Carhart (he and Norton Canfield coined the term “audiology
reason for the field of audiology
Reason for the field of Audiology
  • The government became concerned with hearing disorders

when VA hospitals had military with hearing problems due to:

-direct injury—gunshot, shrapnel

-disease—jungle rot

-acoustic trauma—high intensity noise (cannons,guns,etc)

-emotional disorders - “shell shock” (protective device)

  • Aural rehabilitation hospitals opened all over the nation and were interested in:

-conservation of hearing

-habilitation and rehabilitation programs

-diagnosis (Dx) of hearing loss related to medical problems

-educational placement and programs for the hearing impaired

academic qualifications for audiologist
Academic Qualifications for Audiologist
  • BA/BS in Communicative Disorders or equivalent
  • MA/MS in Audiology
  • Pass national written examination (formerly NESPA)
  • Complete Clinical Fellowship Year (CFY)
  • Certificate of Clinical Competence in Audiology (CCCA)
  • State License (usually CCCA + fees)
  • Au.D. or equivalent will be needed by 2007
  • Ph.D. and FAAA is optional at this time
other hearing health professionals
Other Hearing Health Professionals
  • Otolaryngologist
  • Hearing Conservationist
  • Hearing Aid Specialist
  • Audioprosthologist
  • Audiometrist
professional opportunities for audiologists
Professional Opportunities for Audiologists
  • Teaching
  • Clinical
  • Research
  • Administration
hearing tests and their development non audiometric
Hearing Tests and their Development (non-audiometric)
  • Watch tick
  • Coin-click
  • Conversational voice
  • Noise makers
  • Tuning fork tests (Demonstrate using tuning fork)
    • Schwabach Test (also called the time threshold test)
    • Rinne Test
    • Bing test
    • Weber
pure tone audiometry
Pure Tone Audiometry
  • Normal hearing (intensity) = 0—25dB (ANSI)
  • We hear 20—20,000 Hertz (frequency)
  • We only test 250—8,000 Hertz (Hz)
  • 250, 500, 1000, 2000, 3000, 4000, 6000 & 8000Hz are the individual frequencies at which we test by AC
  • 250, 500, 1000, 2000 and 4000Hz are the frequencies for BC
  • Quiet environment needed (otocups, insert phones and booths
  • Occlusion effect—the increase of loudness of pure tones at 1000 Hz or lower. Happens in normal, sn—not in conductive losses.
  • Sweep check vs. threshold testing
performing the pure tone test
Performing the Pure Tone Test
  • Check calibration of audiometer
  • Otoscopic inspection (wax, collapsed canal, drainage etc.)
  • Patient instructions
  • Question: Which is your better ear?
  • Hairdos, wigs, glasses and earrings
  • Correct placement of earphones (TDH 39)
  • Correct placement of the patient
performing the pure tone test continued
Performing the Pure Tone Test (continued)
  • Pulsed or continuous signal
  • Present tone with about 1 second duration
  • Be aware of eye contact
  • Watch out for “rhythm system”
  • Red, right, round. Blue X’s for left (AC)
  • Bone conduction (BC) thresholds and symbols
  • Masking for AC and BC
  • Maximum output at each frequency
patient responses
Patient Responses
  • False negative
  • False positive
  • Validity vs. reliability
  • Down 10; up 5 rule
  • Determine threshold
  • Test re-test reliability
  • Pure tone average (PTA)
  • Tactile responses (cutile)
  • Cross hearing and interaural attenuation (IA) AC & BC
masking
Masking
  • Narrow band
  • White noise (broad band or wide band noise)
  • Effective masking
  • Over masking (OM
  • Speech noise
  • Complex noise
  • Other masking (saw tooth, pink noise etc.)
  • Plateau Method
calculation of percentage of hearing loss
Calculation of Percentage of Hearing Loss
  • Average thresholds at 500, 1K, 2K and 3KHz
  • Subtract 25 dB
  • Multiply X 1.5 for each ear = % of loss per ear
  • Binaural loss %’age = better ear X 5 + poorer ear %age divided by 6 = binaural percentage loss
audiograms
Audiograms
  • Table audiogram
  • Graph audiogram