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Paper 2: Causes, Practices and Effects of Wars

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  1. Paper 2: Causes, Practices and Effects of Wars World War I: Causes

  2. No war is inevitable until it breaks out. - A. J. P. Taylor

  3. Key Questions: • What were the main long-term causes of the war? • What were the main short term causes of the war? • What were the economic, political, ideological, and territorial causes?

  4. Overview: • Rivalry developed among the ‘Great Powers’ of Europe- competed to expand their colonial possessions • From 1870 arms race developed; countries increasing their armies • Growth of nationalism accompanied by an upsurge in militarization • System of alliances developed • Break up of Ottoman Empire destabilized the Balkans • Final Trigger: assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand in Sarajevo

  5. Timeline: 1871 – A United German Empire proclaimed after war with France; Germany takes Alsace-Lorraine from France 1879- Dual Alliance between Germany and Austria-Hungary 1882 – Triple Alliance between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy 1894 – Franco-Russian Alliance 1898 – First German naval law; construction of fleet challenges Britain 1904 – Anglo-French colonial entente 1905 – First Moroccan Crisis 1907 – Anglo –Russian entente 1908 – Bosnian crisis 1911 – Second Moroccan crisis (Agadir crisis) 1912-13 – Balkan Wars 1914 – Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

  6. From 1914 to 1919, World War I erupted in Europe • Text What caused World War I? This “Great War” was the largest, most destructive war the world had yet seen WWI was a global war that altered the course of the 20th century

  7. Long Term Causes of WWI

  8. From 1870 to 1914, a number of developments gradually increased tensions among the European powers that led to the outbreak of World War I The MILITARISM ALLIANCES IMPERIALISM NATIONALISM causes of World War I

  9. MILITARISM The Industrial Revolution led to large, advanced militaries in Europe/ technological advances Europeans believed that to be great, nations had to have strong militaries As a result, an arms race began among European nations, especially between Britain & Germany (naval race) Nations glorified military power & kept an army prepared for war (called militarism) Mobilization- became an important concept Having a strong army increased patriotism among citizens/ military parades popular

  10. The naval strength of the powers in 1914

  11. Imperialism andColonial Expansion • Imperialism is when a country takes over new lands or countries and makes them subject to their rule. • By 1900 the British Empire extended over five continents and France had control of large areas of Africa. With the rise of industrialism countries needed new markets. • The amount of lands 'owned' by Britain and France increased the rivalry with Germany who had entered the scramble to acquire colonies late and only had small areas of Africa. 

  12. Imperialism • Moroccan Crisis • In 1904 Morocco had been given to France by Britain, but the Moroccans wanted their independence. • In 1905, Germany announced her support for Moroccan independence. • War was narrowly avoided by a conference which allowed France to retain possession of Morocco. • In 1911, the Germans were again protesting against French possession of Morocco. • Britain supported France and Germany was persuaded to back down for part of French Congo. • Imperialist rivalry had grown more intense with the "new imperialism" of the late 19th and early 20th cent. • Particularly unsettling was the policy of Germany. • It embarked late but aggressively on colonial expansion under Emperor William II came into conflict with France over Morocco , and seemed to threaten Great Britain by its rapid naval expansion.

  13. IMPERIALISM Germany & France almost went to war three times over Morocco 1905,1911- Germany’s attempts to block France’s control of Morocco European nations competed fiercely for colonies in Africa & Asia England & France argued over rights to the Sudan – over ownership of the southern Nile Germany, England, Russia argued over building a railroad in India Competition for colonies often pushed Europeans to the brink of war This competition increased European rivalry & mistrust

  14. Alliances • An alliance is an agreement made between two or more countries to give each other help if it is needed. When an alliance is signed, those countries become known as Allies. • A number of alliances had been signed by countries between the years 1879 and 1914. These were important because they meant that some countries had no option but to declare war if one of their allies. declared war first

  15. Formation of the Triple Entente • In 1882 Germany, Austria Hungary and Italy formed the Triple Alliance. The three countries agreed to support each other if attacked by either France or Russia. • France felt threatened by this alliance. Britain was also concerned by the growth in the Germany Navy and in 1904 the two countries signed the Entente Cordiale (friendly understanding). The objective of the alliance was to encourage co-operation against the perceived threat of Germany. • Three years later, Russia who feared the growth in the Germany Army, joined Britain & France to form the Triple Entente. • The Russian government was also concerned about the possibility of Austria Hungary increasing the size of its empire. It therefore made promises to help Serbia if it was attacked by members of the Triple Alliance

  16. ALLIANCES Growing rivalries among nations led to the formation of two military alliances that threatened to draw European nations into war Germany, Italy, & Austria-Hungary made up the Triple Alliance England, France, & Russia formed the Triple Entente

  17. NATIONALISM Rivalries due to militarism & imperialism increased nationalism among Eu. powers • Competition for materials and markets • Territorial disputes - France, for example, had never gotten over the loss of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany in the Franco-Prussian War (1870). • Austria-Hungary and Russia both tried to dominate in the Balkans, • Balkans - the intense nationalism of Serbs, Bulgarians, Romanians, etc. led to demands for independence. European rivals tried to maintain a balance of power while also trying to overpower each other “European Balance of Power, 1914” British propaganda poster, 1897

  18. NATIONALISM No region was more tense in the years before World War I than the Balkans While nationalism unified people in the powerful nations, it was dividing people in weakening empires Serbia, Greece, Albania, Bulgaria, & Romania broke from the Ottoman Empire to create new nations Slavic people in Serbia wanted to unify all Slavs but Austria-Hungary opposed giving up the largely Slavic territories Bosnia & Herzegovina The Balkans became a “powder keg” waiting for a spark to blow up

  19. Nationalism • In 1908, Austria annexed, or took over, Bosnia and Herzegovina. • These were two Balkan areas with large Slavic populations. • Serbian leaders, who had sought to rule these provinces, were outraged. • In the years that followed, tensions between Serbia and Austria steadily rose. The Serbs continually vowed to take Bosnia and Herzegovina away from Austria. • In response, Austria-Hungary vowed to crush any Serbian effort to undermine its authority in the Balkans

  20. Short Term Causes of World War I

  21. Bosnian Crisis • In 1908, Austria-Hungary took over the former Turkish province of Bosnia. • This angered Serbians who felt the province should be theirs. Serbia threatened Austria-Hungary with war, Russia, allied to Serbia, mobilized its forces. Germany, allied to Austria-Hungary mobilized its forces and prepared to threaten Russia. War was avoided when Russia backed down. • There was, however, war in the Balkans between 1911 and 1912 (The Balkan Wars) when the Balkan states drove Turkey out of the area. The states then fought each other over which area should belong to which state. • Austria-Hungary then intervened and forced Serbia to give up some of its acquisitions. Tension between Serbia and Austria-Hungary was high.

  22. The Black Hand • In May 1911, ten men in Serbia formed the Black Hand Secret Society. • The main objective of the Black Hand was the creation, by means of violence, of a Greater Serbia. • Its stated aim was: "To realize the national ideal, the unification of all Serbs. This organization prefers terrorist action to cultural activities; it will therefore remain secret.“ • By 1914 there were around 2,500 members of the Black Hand.

  23. The Outbreak of World War I Serbians vowed to take Bosnia & Herzegovina from Austria-Hungary On June 28, 1914, the Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand & his wife were assassinatedbyaSerbianterrorist The assassin Gavrilo Princip

  24. Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and his wife Sophia

  25. The Outbreak of World War I On July 23, Austria-Hungary issued an ultimatum to Serbia: turn over conspirators & allow an investigation…OR…go to war When Serbia balked at some of the terms, Austria-Hungary declared war on June 28, 1914 Russia had a large population of Slavs & was an ally of Serbia; Russia moved troops to the Austrian border These events set off a chain reaction that started World War I

  26. World War 1 Begins On July 28,1914, Serbia declined the ultimatum Russia mobilized for war to protect Serbia On August 1, 1914, Germany declared war on Russia On August 3, 1914, Germany declared war on France On August 4, 1914, England declared war on Germany & Austria-Hungary Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia & its ally Russia Italy backed out of its agreement with Germany & Austria-Hungary… …and joined the Allies World War I had begun

  27. The Outbreak – details • On July 23, assured by unconditional ('carte blanche') support of the Germans should war break out, it sent an ULTIMATUM to Serbia containing many demands, among them that Austrian agents would be allowed to take part in the investigation, and in general holding Serbia responsible for the assassination. • The Serbian government accepted all the terms, except that of the participation of the Austrian agents in the inquiry, which it saw as a violation of its sovereignty. Emboldened by last minute Russian support, Serbia rejected the ultimatum. • Austria-Hungary, in turn, rejected the Serbian reply on July 26. Breaking diplomatic relations, the Austro-Hungarian Empire declared war on Serbia on July 28, proceeding to bombard Belgrade on July 29. On July 30 Austria-Hungary and Russia both ordered general mobilization of their armies.

  28. The Germans, having pledged their support to Austria-Hungary, sent Russia an ultimatum to stop mobilization within 12 hours on July 31. • On August 1, with the ultimatum expired, the German ambassador to Russia formally declared war. • On August 2 Germany occupied Luxembourg, as a preliminary step to the invasion of Belgium and the Schlieffen Plan (i.e. Germany had planned to attack France first according to the plan, and then Russia, which had already gone wrong) the same day yet another ultimatum was delivered to Belgium, requesting free passage for the German army on the way to France. • The Belgians refused. At the very last moment, the Kaiser Wilhelm II asked Moltke, the German Chief of General Staff, to cancel the invasion of France in the hope this would keep Britain out of the war. • Moltke, horrified by the prospect of the utter ruin of the Schlieffen Plan, refused on the grounds that it would be impossible to change the rail schedule- "once settled, it cannot be altered". • On August 3 Germany declared war on France, and on August 4 invaded Belgium. This act, violating Belgian neutrality to which Germany, France, and Britain were all committed to guarantee, gave Britain, which up to that point had yet to choose a side in the conflict, a reason to declare war on Germany on August 4.

  29. During the war Germany & Austria-Hungary became the Central Powers; They were joined by Bulgaria & the Ottoman Empire The members of the Triple Entente became known as the Allied Powers and eventually were joined by…

  30. …many nations throughout the world

  31. What were the economic, political, ideological and territorial causes?