The New Deal. Restoring Hope in the First Hundred Days. Restoring Hope in the First Hundred Days. New Deal = Relief, Recovery, and Reform programs 1 st Hundred Days – FDR pushed programs through to provide relief, create jobs, & stimulate the economy. Goals of New Deal Legislation.
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Restoring Hope in the First Hundred Days Restoring Hope in the First Hundred Days • New Deal = Relief, Recovery, and Reform programs • 1st Hundred Days – FDR pushed programs through to provide relief, create jobs, & stimulate the economy
Goals of New Deal Legislation • Stabilize banking • Emergency Banking Act • Glass-Steagall Banking Act (FDIC)
Goals of New Deal Legislation • Provide relief & create jobs • Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC) • Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA)
Goals of New Deal Legislation • Regulate the economy • National Industrial Recovery Act, which established: • Public Works Administration (PWA) • National Recovery Administration(NRA)
Goals of New Deal Legislation • Assist homeowners & farmers • Federal Housing Administration (FHA) • Agricultural Adjustment Administration (AAA) • Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Continuing Hardships • The New Deal eased suffering, but didn’t end it • Desperate people went to desperate measures • The Depression took its toll on families
Minorities and the New Deal • The New Deal didn’t address racism, and many programs were biased against blacks and Mexican Americans • Indian Reorganization Act (“Indian New Deal”) had little impact • Scottsboro case (1931) set important precedents
Culture in the 1930s • Important literary achievements included The Grapes of Wrath and Native Son. • Radio and movies provided a needed escape from hard times. • FDR’s “Fireside Chats” reassured Americans.
Contributions of Women • Frances Perkins – 1st female Secretary of Labor • Eleanor Roosevelt was FDR’s “eyes & ears” • Photographer Dorothea Lange inspired programs for farm workers
Critics of the New Deal • Liberals felt the New Deal didn’t go far enough to reform the system. • Conservatives said it gave the government too much control of the economy. • Huey Long’s Share-Our-Wealth program sought to limit individual personal wealth & increase the minimal income for all. • Other critics were demagogues, like Father Charles E. Coughlin.
The Second New Deal Continued First New Deal in: Providing jobs • Works Progress Administration (WPA) Regulating the economy • Wagner Act • Social Security Administration (SSA) As well as programs to benefit farmers
The 1936 Election • FDR’s landslide victory showed that most Americans supported the New Deal • Forged a new coalition for the Democrats
The Court Packing Fiasco • Schecter v. U.S. decisionstruck down NIRA • Roosevelt proposed to add 6 additional Supreme Court justices supportive of the New Deal • Critics warned that FDR was trying to undermine the constitutional separation of powers
The Recession of 1937 • In August 1937, industrial production & employment levels fell. • The new Social Security tax was partly to blame, as were cuts in federal work programs. • FDR concerned about deficit spending.
Legacy of the New Deal • People accepted & expected government intervention to improve their lives.