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The New Deal. Chapter 15 US - 2. FDR wins ‘32. Nation is ready for a change Franklin Delano Roosevelt easily wins Democrats control WH, 2/3 of Senate, ¾ House. FDR was old money Senator, Sec. of Navy, Gov of NY Stricken with Polio Works to gain trust of nation with his “Fireside chats”.

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the new deal

The New Deal

Chapter 15

US - 2

fdr wins 32
FDR wins ‘32

Nation is ready for a change

Franklin Delano Roosevelt easily wins

Democrats control WH, 2/3 of Senate, ¾ House

slide3

FDR was old money

Senator, Sec. of Navy, Gov of NY

Stricken with Polio

Works to gain trust of nation with his “Fireside chats”

slide4

FDR gets to work even before he is sworn in

    • Assembles his “Brain Trust” – expert advisors
    • Begins to formulate policies
  • Promises a NEW DEAL for the American people
    • Relief for the needy
    • Economic recovery
    • Financial reform
slide5

100 days – as soon as FDR gets in office he has congress pass 15 major bills.

    • Greatly expands the governments role in the economy
  • Bank Holiday
ebra emergency banking relief act
EBRA – Emergency Banking Relief Act

Inspect and measure up the banks

GOAL : Restore public faith in banks

glass steagall banking act of 1933
Glass-Steagall Banking Act of 1933

Purpose: establishes FDIC

Goal: restore confidence in banks

federal securities act
Federal Securities Act
  • Purpose : require corporations to provide complete information on all stock offerings
    • Creates SEC securities exchange commission – regulates stock market practices
  • Goal: restore public faith in the stock market
national industrial recovery act nira
National Industrial Recovery Act -NIRA

Purpose : Sets prices, establish labor standards, contains PWA, NRA

Goal: ensure fair business practices and promote industrial growth

***struck down by Supreme Court

agricultural adjustment act aaa
Agricultural Adjustment Act - AAA
  • Purpose: lower farm production…pays farmers
    • Slaughter livestock, plow under crops
  • Goal: Raise crop/farm prices
tennessee valley authority tva
Tennessee Valley Authority _ TVA

Purpose: To build/repair dams on the Tenn. River, provide hydroelectric power

Goal: To improve the quality of life for the impoverished region

civilian conservation corps ccc
Civilian Conservation Corps - CCC

Purpose: put young men to work on civil and conservation projects

Goal: reduce unemployment, prevent soil erosion

federal emergency relief administration fera
Federal Emergency Relief Administration - FERA

Purpose : Provide direct relief for the needy and helped fund state run work programs

Goal : Provide basic needs for those hit the hardest by the depression

pwa public works administration
PWA – Public Works Administration
  • Purpose: Provides money to states to create jobs by taking on public construction projects
    • Schools, Hospitals, Town Halls
  • Goal : Lower unemployment
cwa civil works administration
CWA – Civil Works Administration

Purpose: creates 4 million immediate jobs

Goal: To reduce unemployment

home owners loan corporation holc
Home Owners Loan Corporation - HOLC
  • Purpose: Provided government backed loans to homeowners facing foreclosure
    • FHA also created…still around today
  • Goal: Help families keep their homes
attacks on the new deal
Attacks on the New Deal
  • John Maynard Keynes – British economist promotes the idea of deficit spending
    • A government spending more than they bring in revenues
  • Many conservatives argued against these policies.
    • Interfered with free market
    • “make work”programs
    • American Liberty League
supreme court
Supreme Court
  • Two SCOUS rulings strike down AAA and NIRA
  • FDR reacts and was going to try to expand the Supreme Court by 6.
    • Packing the court
    • Ton of backlash
  • FDR gets his way as a justice retires and he is able to shift the balance of power.
liberal critics
Liberal Critics
  • Argue FDR isn’t doing enough
  • Rev. Charles Coughlin – broadcast Sunday sermons with political messages
    • guarantee income, nationalization of banks
  • Dr. Francis Townsend – more for poor and elderly
  • Senator Huey Long – LA
    • Wants to be president
    • Share the wealth campaign
    • Is assassinated 1935
slide24

By 1935 the economy has improved, but production and employment rates still lagged

FDR is still popular and looking to build on his programs from years past

eleanor roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt

First lady, Humanitarian

Reminds her husband people are still suffering

Encourages her husband to appoint women to gov. offices

reelection 1936
Reelection 1936
  • FDR wins – Dems dominate both houses
    • First time African Americans vote democrat
    • Unions give united support
helping farmers
Helping Farmers

New farm bills are passed to restore most of the AAA

Farm Security Administration (FSA) gave loans to share croppers and migrant workers so they could buy farms of their own

wpa works progress administration
WPA Works Progress Administration
  • Between 1935 – 43 spent $11B
    • 8M jobs
    • 850 airports
    • 651K – Miles of Road
    • 125K – Public buildings
  • Also took on fine art projects
nya national youth administration
NYA – National Youth Administration

Provides education, counseling, recreation for youth

Student aid in exchange for part time work

labor
Labor
  • Wagner Act – AKA National Labor Relations Act
    • Protects rights of workers to unionize
    • Collective bargaining
    • Prevents unfair labor practice
    • 40 work week, minimum wage, child labor rules
social security
Social Security

Old Age Insurance – supplemental retirement plan

Unemployment Insurance – provides unemployment benefits for laid off workers

Disability and families with dependent children

women
Women
  • Appointees : Frances Perkins
    • Secretary of Labor
    • First female cabinet member \
  • Gains: Women appointed to important government jobs, More women working outside of the home
  • Not Fixed: Employment discrimination
    • Wages
    • Hiring
african americans
African Americans
  • Appointees: Mary McLeod Bethune (Negro Affiars in NYA), William Hastie and Robert Weaver (Dept. of Interior) – “Black Cabinet”
  • Gains: Greater political voice, assistant for tenant farmers
  • Not fixed: Racism/discrimination
    • Segregation
    • Racial violence
    • Poll taxes
fdr does not push for civil rights
FDR does not push for Civil Rights

Fear of losing southern democrat support

Refused to endorse Anti-lynching, poll tax bills

New Deal agencies are discriminatory

labor unions
Labor Unions

Unions organized : CIO Congress of Industrial Organizations

Gains: Better working conditions, bargaining power, increased membership

Not Fixed: Strike Violence, Big Business opposition

other info
Other info
  • New Deal Coalition – diverse group of special interests all of which support the New Deal
    • Southern Whites
    • Urban Groups
    • Immigrants
  • Native Americans gain citizenship and gain newfound support from the government
    • John Collier – Commissioner of Indian Affairs
      • Moves away from assimilation towards autonomy