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Chemical Reactions. Chapter 10 Reactions and Equations. Evidence of Chemical Reactions. How many indicators of a chemical reaction can you list? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. ANSWERS. Temperature change Color change Texture change Precipitate formation Bubbling, fizzing

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chemical reactions

Chemical Reactions

Chapter 10

Reactions and Equations

evidence of chemical reactions
Evidence of Chemical Reactions
  • How many indicators of a chemical reaction can you list?

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

answers
ANSWERS
  • Temperature change
  • Color change
  • Texture change
  • Precipitate formation
  • Bubbling, fizzing
  • Gas released
representing chemical reactions
Representing Chemical Reactions
  • Chemical equations show REACTANTS on the left and PRODUCTS on the right side of an arrow.

Reactant 1 + Reactant 2 → Product 1 + Product 2

slide5

A skeletal equation uses chemical formulas rather than words to identify the reactants and the products. For example, the skeleton equation for the reaction between iron and chlorine is represented below.

  • Iron(s) + chlorine(g) → iron (III) chloride (s)
  • Fe(s) + Cl2 (g) → FeCl3(s)

One iron atom One iron atom

Two chlorine atoms Three chlorine atoms

practice problems
Practice Problems
  • Write skeleton equations for each word equation on page 279 of text.
answers1
Answers
  • H2 (g) + Br2(g) → 2HBr (g)
  • 2CO(g) + O2(g) → 2CO2 (g)
  • 2KClO3(s) → 2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)
balancing equations
Balancing Equations

Fe(s) + Cl2 (g) → FeCl3(s)

One iron atom One iron atom

Two chlorine atoms Three chlorine atoms

To accurately represent a chemical reaction by an equation, the equation must show how the law of conservation of mass is obeyed. The equation must show that the number of atoms of each reactant and each product is equal on both sides of the arrow.

slide9

Cl

+→

+ → →

2 iron atoms

6 chlorine atoms 2 iron atoms,

6 chlorine atoms

Cl

Cl

Cl

Fe

Fe

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Cl

Fe

Fe

Cl

steps for balancing equations
Steps for balancing equations
  • Write the skeleton equation for the reaction.
  • Count the atoms of the elements in the reactants.
  • Count the atoms of the elements in the products.
  • Change the coefficients to make the number of atoms of each element equal on both sides of the equation.
slide11

NEVER CHANGE THE SUBSCRIPT in a chemical formula to balance an equation because doing so changes the identity of the substance.

  • Write the coefficients in their lowest possible ratio.
  • CHECK YOUR WORK! Make sure that the chemical formulas are written correctly. Then check that the number of atoms of each element is equal on both sides of the equation.
practice problems1
Practice Problems
  • Write chemical equations for each of the word equations on page 282 of text.
  • In water, iron (III) chloride reacts with sodium hydroxide , producing solid iron (III) hydroxide and sodium chloride.
  • Liquid carbon disulfide reacts with oxygen gas, producing carbon dioxide gas and sulfur dioxide gas.
slide13

6. Solid zinc and aqueous hydrogen sulfate react to produce hydrogen gas and aqueous zinc sulfate.

answers2
ANSWERS
  • FeCl3 (aq) + NaOH(aq) → Fe(OH)3 (s) + NaCl(s)
  • CS2(l) + O2(g) → CO2(g) + SO2 (g)
  • Zn(S) + H2SO4 (aq) → H2 (g) + ZnSO4(aq)
did you balance
Did you balance?

FeCl3 (aq) + NaOH(aq) → 3Fe(OH)3 (s) + 3NaCl(s)

CS2(l) + 3O2(g) → CO2(g) + 2SO2 (g)

Zn(S) + H2SO4 (aq) → H2 (g) + ZnSO4(aq)

(already balanced)

symbols
Symbols

→ yields, produces, makes, forms, etc.

  • Solid
  • Liquid

(aq) aqueous

(g) gas, also may appear as ↑

↔ equilibrium, (reaction can also go in reverse)

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