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LESSON # 23. THE OUTCOMES OF EVOLUTION:. Macroevolution. MICRO EVOLUTION. MACRO EVOLUTION. EVOLUTION. Any genetically based phenotype change in a population of organisms over successive generations.

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LESSON # 23

THE OUTCOMES OF EVOLUTION:

Macroevolution

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MICROEVOLUTION

MACROEVOLUTION

EVOLUTION

Any genetically based phenotype change in a population of organisms over successive generations.

A change of allele frequencies in a population over a relatively short period of time. No new species are originated.

Evolution that results in the formation of new species.

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How Do New Species Arise?

One specie can be transformed into another in the process called speciation.

The development of new species through evolution.

Speciation:

What brings this branching evolution?

Macroevolution

Microevolution

Common ancestor

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Microevolution: A change of allele frequencies in a population over a relatively short period of time.

After enough time, should the two population find them- selves geographically reunited, they may no longer freely interbreed. At that point, they are separated species.

Speciation has occurred.

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What Could Drastically Reduce Interbreeding?

Geographical separation is the most important factor in getting speciation going.

When geographical barriers divide a population and the resulting populations then go on to become separate species, what has occurred is Allopatric Speciation.

Allopatric Speciation

Speciation

Sympatric Speciation

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Examples of Allopatric Speciation

Millions of years ago

The east and west population came back together in Southern California, but could no longer interbreed (or produce infertile hybrid offspring).

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Geographic Separation +

Geographic Separation by itself

No interbreeding

Interbreeding

Geographical separation can not produce speciation by itself.

Reproductive isolating mechanisms

no speciation

Speciation

Following geographic separation, the two populations of the same species must then undergo physical or behavioral changes that will keep them from interbreeding, should they ever be reunited.

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Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms

Any factor that, in nature, prevents interbreeding between individuals of the same species or of closely related species.

Extrinsic

Intrinsic

Geographic Separation

1- Ecological Isolation

2- Temporal isolation

3- Behavioral Isolation

4- Mechanical Isolation

5- Gametic isolation

6- Hybrid Inviability (Infertility)

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Sympatric: “of the same country”

Allopatric: “of other country”

Intrinsic Reproductive Isolating Mechanisms can develop between two populations in the absence of any geographic separation of them.

Allopatric Speciation: When geographical barriers divide a population and the resulting populations then go on to become separate species.

Sympatric Speciation: Any speciation that does not involve geographic separation.

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How many species are in the earth?

The lowest estimate: About 4 million species

The higher end estimate: From 10 to 15 million species.

Every species may have different common names in different places.

To prevent the confusion that can result from having several common names, species are not named by their common names but by scientific names.

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Felis is a genus of cats. The second name is the species of cat.

Chinese Mountain Cat, Felisbieti

Jungle Cat, Felischaus

Pallas's Cat, Felismanul

Sand Cat, Felis margarita

Black-footed Cat, Felisnigripes

Wildcat, Felissilvestris

Domestic Cat, Felissilvestriscatus

BINOMIAL NOMEMCLATURE

Scientific names for species has two parts:

1- The first part is the genus, which designates a group of individuals who are closely related but still are separated species

2- The second part designatesspecies

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Genus canis

Canis adustusCanis aureus (jackal)Canis dirus (extinct)Canis latransCanis lupus (wolf, domestic dog)Canis mesomelasCanis rufusCanis simensis

Canis lupus

Canis aureus

Canis lupus familiaris

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Plantae

Archaea

Fungi

Bacteria

Animalia

Eukarya

Protista

Taxonomic Classification

A method of classifying organisms based on 8 categories called taxons.

1- Domain

2- Kingdom

3- Phylum

4- Class

5- Order

6- Family

7- Genus

8- Species

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Plantae

1- Domain

2- Kingdom

3- Phylum

4- Class

5- Order

6- Family

7- Genus

8- Species

Fungi

Archaea

Animalia

Bacteria

Protista

Eukarya

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Species are named and classified according to how closely they are related.

Systematics:

It is the field of Biology that is concerned with the diversity and relatedness of organisms.

Systematics tries to establish the truth about who is more closely related to whom by studying the evolutionary history of organisms.

1- Classical Taxonomy

Classification of Living Things

2- Cladistics

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1- Classical Taxonomy

It is based in the physical form or “morphology” of the animals in questions, as preserved by fossil record, and comparing it to the morphology of modern animals.

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2- Cladistics

It is based in the differences between ancestral characters and derived characters.

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- Ancestral characters: Characters existing in a common ancestor

- Derived characters: Characters which are unique to the organisms descended from a common ancestor

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Classical Taxonomic Classification

Cladistic Taxonomic Classification

It is based in the physical form or “morphology” of the animals in questions, as preserved by fossil record, and comparing it to the morphology of modern animals.

It is based in the differences between ancestral characters and derived characters.