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Leadership Defined. LOVE. DEMOCRACY. PEACE. Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership. In the past 60 years, there has been as much as 65 different classification systems to define the dimensions of leadership (Fleishman et al., 1991). Perspectives. Perspectives . Leadership Components.

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ways of conceptualizing leadership
Ways of Conceptualizing Leadership
  • In the past 60 years, there has been as much as 65 different classification systems to define the dimensions of leadership (Fleishman et al., 1991).
leadership components
Leadership Components
  • Leadership is a process: Process implies that a leader affects and is affected by followers. Leadership is not a linear but rather an interactive event.
  • Leadership involves influence: Influence is the sine qua non of leadership. Without influence, leadership does not exist.
  • Leadership occurs in a group context: Leadership

takes place in a group and involves the process of influencing individuals in the group who have a common purpose.

  • Leadership involves goal attainment:
leadership components7
Leadership Components
  • Leadership involves goal attainment: Leadership includes attention to goals. Leadership directs a group of individuals towards accomplishing some task/goal.

Leaders direct their energies towards individuals who are trying to achieve something together.

based on these components leadership is defined as
Based on these components, leadership is defined as…..

A process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal.

trait versus process leadership
Trait Versus Process Leadership
  • Trait: Certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that make them leaders. It is the qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders.
  • Some of the personal factors (eg.height), personality features (eg.extraversion), and ability characteristic (speech fluency).
Trait: Conceptualizes leadership as a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people.
  • Process: Leadership is a phenomenon that resides in the context and makes leadership available to everyone.
  • That make leadership available to everyone, and it is something that can be learned.
assigned versus emergent leadership
Assigned leadership: Based on occupying a position in an organization. Eg: directors, department heads etc.

Emergent: When others perceive a person as the most influential member of a group or organization, regardless of the individual’s title. The emergent leader acquires leadership through other people in the organization who support and accept his/her behavior.

Assigned Versus Emergent Leadership
Emergent: It emerges over a period of time through communication (being verbally involved, being informed, seeking other’s opinions, initiating new ideas, and being firm but not rigid.
leadership and power
Leadership is part of the influence process.

Power is the capacity or potential to influence.

People have power when they have the ability to affect others’ beliefs, attitudes, and courses of action.

Five bases of power: reward, coercive, legitimate, referent and expert.

Leadership and Power
leadership and coercion
The use of force to effect change.

Influencing others to do something by manipulating the penalties and rewards in their work environment.

These leaders are interested in their own goals and seldom are interested in their subordinates’ wants and needs.

Leadership and Coercion
is leadership management
Is Leadership Management?


Establishing Direction

Create a vision

Clarify Big Picture

Set Strategies

Aligning People

Communicate goals

Seek commitment

Buildteams and coalition

Motivating and Inspiring

Inspire and Energize

Empower Subordinates

Satisfy Unmet Needs

how about management
Planning and Budgeting

Organizing and Staffing

Controlling and Problem Solving

Question: Don’t leaders also do these?

How is organization with strong management without leadership?

How is organization with strong leadership but without management?

How about Management?
  • Produces Order and Consistency