Chinese Government Institutions • Identify the function and structure of major Chinese institutions. • Explain the role of personal connections for elite recruitment in China. • Identify examples of devolution in China. • Explain how the link between the Chinese military and the Communist Party. 04/10/12
THE US AND CHINA March 9, 2011, 1:04 pmObama Officially Nominates __________Ambassador to China An introduction to China . . http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/in_depth/china_modern/html/3.stm
Sovereignty, Authority, and Power China is a _____Party-State Apex: Standing Committee; p______/ National Party Congress Apex: Standing Committee of National People’s Congress Government Party “p_______ hierarchies”: All gov’t exec. , leg and adm. agencies are matched by a corresponding party organ.
Parallel Hierarchies: for each institution in the government, a parallel one exists in the party and military; party members hold government positions (eg Hu is Party Secretary, President and head of Military) Now Hu Now Hu
Click on the boxes to read about the bodies that rule China INSTITUTIONS: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/shared/spl/hi/asia_pac/02/china_party_congress/china_ruling_party/how_china_is_ruled/html/defaulta.stm
October 2007: Party delegates -- 2,200 in all -- attended the opening ceremony of the week-long event, which is held once every five years—so which one is this?
October 15, 2007Communist Party Congress Opens in China BEIJING, Oct. 15 — Delivering the opening address at the ruling Communist Party’s 17th National Congress today, President Hu Jintao promised to address social fissures, a degraded environment and rampant corruption during his second term as China’s top leader, but he all but ruled out more than cosmetic political reform. Mr. Hu spoke extensively about his “_______ view of development,” a set of lofty, vague principles supporting “h__________economic, social and political development. The congress will enshrine the phrase “scientific view of development” into the party’s constitution alongside the political slogans of Mao, D________Xiaoping, and J________Zemin, elevating Mr. Hu into the pantheon of leaders as he begins the second and final term as party general secretary, head of state and military chief.
Inside the hall, last-minute preparations for the congress included pouring tea for the officials
At the Communist Party Congress in Beijing, where delegates voted during closing ceremonies, three officials, including Vice President Zeng Qinghong, gave up their positions on Sunday.
As part of the fanfare accompanying the start of the Chinese Communist Party's 17th National Congress at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, a conductor led a performance by a military band
The former Chinese Communist Party Chairman Hua Guofeng, top left, slept during the lengthy proceedings
The N PEOPLES C consists of about 3,000 delegates. Delegates to the National People’s Congress are elected for ______-year terms via a multi-tiered representative electoral system. Delegates are elected by the provincial _________'s assemblies, who in turn are elected by lower level assemblies, and so on through a series of tiers to the local people's assemblies which are directly elected by the electorate. For these 8 parties see: http://english.gov.cn/about.htm
Hu Jintao, the Chinese president, inspected troops Saturday in Hong Kong, which was set to celebrate the 10th anniversary of its return to China on Sunday.
Elites key to elite recruitment is “g______” You must work your way through the _________ PBSC is picked by the P which is picked by the NPC news flash: “One of the most important political changes in China over the past 30 years has been a move away from the vicious factional strife of the Maoist era, a tendency that persisted well into the 1980s and fuelled the pro-democracy upheaval of 1989. In 2002, for the first time in China’s communist history, power was smoothly __________from one set of leaders to another without killings or purgings. BIG deal. When is the current 4th generation’s term up? http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?story_id=12758848
Who’s Hu in China Zeng Qinghong, right, China’s reputed political mastermind retired in 2007) , with President _____Jintao, left, and Premier _____Jiabao at a meeting in March NYT 10/3/06 FYI: Vice-President ______ Jinping is heir-apparent to President Hu Jintao
Elite names to know Chinese President _____Jintao, left, and former president _______Zemin. The two men appeared on a rostrum with all the other members of the Po___________and C__________Committee, arranged in precise hierarchical order
State mtg: http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-12228919
Vice President ______Jinping, center, in Canberra, Australia, in 2010. He has spent much of his career in China’s booming east. BEIJING — President _____Jintao of China returned home this weekend after a trip intended to repair relations with the United States. But the next time the White House marches out the honor guard and polishes the crystal for a Chinese leader, it is unlikely to be for Mr. Hu. Following a secretive succession plan sketched out years ago, Mr. Hu has already begun preparing for his departure from power, passing the baton to his presumed successor, a former provincial leader named _____Jinping, now China’s _______president.. Mr. ______ (his full name is pronounced Shee Jin-ping) climbed the ladder by building support among top _______officials, particularly those in Mr. Jiang’s clique, all while cultivating an image of humility and self-reliance despite his prominent f______ ties, say officials and other party members who have known him.
The “Princelings” An important but informal politically influential group in China are the so-called “princelings.” This group consists of relatives (most frequently, the sons and daughters) of senior Chinese government officials who use their family relationship to obtain access to privilege, positions of power, and wealth—often by circumventing the official channels and procedures. For many people in China, the “princelings” represent that type of “class privilege” that the Cultural Revolution was supposed to eradicate. Because their access to power and privilege is seen not necessarily to be based on merit, some view the “princelings” at least as a minor source of corruption and at worst as a serious threat to the Party’s legitimacy with the public. The “princelings” have chosen different avenues to power in China. Some have used their access to better education and job opportunities to become important figures within the Party or the government. Others chose to focus their energies on obtaining economic power by establishing private companies (often by securing special loans from state-run banks) or being appointed the leading officials of important state-run enterprises
Although some of the “princelings” have used their preferential access to power for social causes, some have been accused of serious corruption. Deng Pu-fang, son of Deng Xiao-ping and himself a paraplegic,30 is widely known in China as a leading advocate for the rights of the handicapped. Hu Hai-feng—son of President Hu Jin-tao and party secretary for Tsinghua Holdings, a multibillion dollar state-owned conglomerate, was accused of bribery by the Namibian government during the summer of 2009. See you tube on princilings and http://www.chinahush.com/2010/10/21/sue-me-if-you-dare-my-dad-is-li-gang/ http://www.nytimes.com/2011/01/31/world/asia/31china.html “My father is Li Gang” has become a bitter inside joke, a catchphrase for shirking any responsibility — washing the dishes, being faithful to a girlfriend — with impunity
Levels of Government: SupRAnational? The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international body whose purpose is to promote _____ trade by persuading countries to abolish import t_________ and other barriers. As such, it has become closely associated with globalisation. The WTO is the only international agency overseeing the rules of international trade. It polices free trade agreements, settles trade disputes between governments and organises trade negotiations. WTO decisions are absolute and every member must abide by its rulings. So, when the US and the European Union are in dispute over bananas or beef, it is the WTO which acts as judge and jury. WTO members are empowered by the organisation to enforce its decisions by imposing trade sanctions against countries that have breached the rules. Membership of the WTO now stands at 149 countries. China formally joined the body in December 2001 after a 15-year battle. Russia wants admission, but must first convince the EU and US that it has reformed business practices. (note—provisional permission to get in has been granted) news flash Russia is in http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/2429503.stm
W.T.O. Rules Against China’s Limits on Imports Pirated DVDs, sold openly at a market in northeast China, cost less than $1, which is steep competition for legitimate discs. August 13, 2009 W.T.O. Rules Against China’s Limits on Imports By KEITH BRADSHER HONG KONG — The World Trade Organization gave the United States a victory on Wednesday in its trade battle with China, ruling that Beijing had violated international rules by limiting imports of books, songs and movies. The W.T.O. panel decision in Geneva buttresses growing complaints from the United States and Europe that China is becoming increasingly nationalistic in its trade policies. It also offers some hope that China will remove its restrictions on media and reduce rampant piracy of intellectual property, though the country can appeal.
Levels of Government: from the Economist Decentralisation of power is substantial BUT . . . . Given China's geographical size—the People's Republic of China is almost as big as the US—and the extent of some of its provinces, local authorities have historically enjoyed a high degree of devolved power. Sometimes this has led to chaos, notably during the Cultural Revolution that took place during the 1960s and 1970s. However, more often experiments at the local level have been able to function as pilot projects; agricultural schemes in Sichuan, for example, paved the way for the national reform programme of the early 1980s. Since then, the devolution of control has continued. Regional governments have become major stakeholders in many local enterprises(TVEs) and have sought to maximize employment, output and revenue-raising opportunities in areas under their jurisdiction, sometimes acting counter to central government policy. Some observers argue that devolution is irreversible and that the government will eventually be reorganised along federal lines. However, the central government is far from powerless and can intervene to enforce compliance with its main policies. The promotion prospects of local officials depend on their ability to meet targets based on the government's policy guidelines. Moreover, the central authorities can still exercise considerable influence through their ability to appoint and remove leading local officials, and provincial governors are frequently reshuffled to prevent them from "going native". The September 2006 dismissal of Mr Chen as Shanghai CCP secretary was at least in part an attempt to rein in provincial governments perceived as failing fully to implement national policy.
Institutions: the military Thousands of soldiers and rows of tanks commemorated 60 years of Communist Party rule during National Day celebrations in Beijing. Female officers and soldiers of the People's Liberation Army marched during the military parade
The anniversary party's overarching theme echoed the words Mao spoke after forcing the Nationalists to surrender Beijing in 1949. "Ours will no longer be a nation subject to insult and humiliation," Mao said. "We have stood up." People's Liberation Army naval officers marched past Tiananmen Square.
People's Liberation Army soldiers marched down Changan Avenue prior to the military parade
From the displays of advanced weaponry to the celebration posters highlighting Shanghai's forest of skyscrapers, the unmistakable message of the celebration was that Mao was right and that the Communist Party is carrying all China to prosperity and worldwide respect.
China's leaders and spectators waited at Tiananmen Gate before the start of the parade. The gate, known as the Gate of Heavenly Peace, is where Mao declared the Communist Party's victory in 1949.
Mao: “Political power grows out of the b ________ of a ______. Our party commands the gun and the gun must never be allowed to command the party.”. Link b/w Military and politics: Officers and men swear allegiance to ______ and state.: PLA officers are also ____ members a separate Party machine inside the military makes sure rank and file stay in line with Party thinking Military
Market Reform in China: Creating a “Socialist Market Economy” “_______cat, White Cat, it doesn’t matter what color the cat is, as long as the Cat catches________” “to get rich is glorious“ \ "poverty is not Socialism" “Socialism with Chinese Characteristics" “ENGELS never flew on an aeroplane; Stalin never wore Dacron.” Deng’s words meant Maoist dogma was out and pragmatism was in. http://www.economist.com/displayStory.cfm?story_id=12758848
Architect: _________Xiaoping Time: early 19______s • Characteristics: • Perestroika without_________ • "Crossing the river by groping for stones" • Strong state model continues in planning and ownership
How: Two Pillars One: Decentralize the economy by: (A) Shifting authority for decision making from central bureaucrats to individual families (first through the “__________responsibility system),factory managers, local governments (“T__ ___”s) and private entrepreneurs: (B) recognizing diverse forms of _________rights • in 2001 Jiang invited so-called "red _______s" - private entrepreneurs and high tech barons - to join the Party – • March 2004, NPC changed constitution so that it says “Citizen’s • Lawful p_________ _________is inviolable” and that the state will protect private property and give compensation when it is confiscated” • March 2007 a law was passed that for the first time enshrines private property rights (C) Most prices set by s________ and d__________, not administrative decree (D)_________ of law: So far, the main change is a gradual regularization of commercial law Note that this is limited Privatization: diminish (NOT eliminate) state owned factories
Number of TVEs (millions) Gross output of TVEs Contribution of TVEs to rural income per capita Sources: China Statistical Yearbook, 1997, 1998. The Yearbook of Chinese ________and Village Enterprises, 1995, 1996 1997, 1998. China Economic Yearbook, 1997, 1998.
China to Freeze Energy Prices in an Effort to Quell Worries About Inflation 1/10/08 BEIJING — Prime Minister Wen Jiabao responded Wednesday to growing public anxiety about inflation by announcing that China would freeze energy prices in the near term, even as international crude oil futures have continued to surge. Inflation has hit an 11-year high in China, and a recent nationwide public opinion survey found that “rising prices of consumer goods” ranked as the top public concern, followed by income inequality and corruption. The freezes were announced on the government’s main Web site after Mr. Wen presided over a meeting of the State Council to revise policies on price controls. But the controls are unlikely to get at the causes of China’s inflation — a currency policy that keeps the yuan artificially low and an overheated economy in which demand for goods and commodities often outstrips supply. See . . . This is still not a free market
This week, China also announced national regulations to help clean up the environment and slow the country’s growing addiction to imported oil by focusing on a ubiquitous but unexpected target: the plastic bag. On Tuesday, the State__________ banned production of ultrathin plastic bags and required store owners to charge customers for thicker plastic bags. The move, which takes effect June 1, is intended not only to fight littering, but also to reduce oil use. Chinese media have reported that China uses about three billion plastic bags every day. Creating this many bags requires 37 million barrels of crude oil every year, according to the Web site of China Trade News. “Our country consumes a large amount of plastic bags,” stated a circular posted Tuesday on the central government’s main Web site. “While convenient for consumers, the bags also lead to a severe waste of resources and environmental pollution.” But for all the attention the government has drawn to the bags, their production represents less than a week’s worth of Chinese oil consumption.
TWO: Opening China to the outside world by . . . • Increasing trade with a focus on “ex_______ lead” growth • (B) encouraging foreign investment (e.g create Special ___________Zones (SEZs))
SEZ and One Country . . .. . _______ Systems