Some Concepts and Research Tools José Luis Toca First Lecture 16.11.2004
Before starting - Why are we here? - What is a research question? It has been answered (adequately) before? Is it useful? - Who should ask that question…we? - Differences between a degree student and a PhD student… some feedback, please!
Introduction • Philosophy of Science • Ethics • Some definitions • Some tools • Our nice problem of today: beer making
Philosophy (of Science) • Historical marriage SCIENCE vs TECHNOLOGY • Research is “finding out what you donot know yet” • BUT • What about what you know and you cannot explain? • Breaking the existent PARADIGM ---- Examples? • The scientific method: our BEST working tool
The scientific method A great intellectual achievement from the Greeks to our time (16/11/2004) Information,Observations,Questions Hypothesis formulation Design experiment: testing the hypothesis Expected results of our hypothesis comparison Experimental result Is the experiment not the appropriate one? Conclusions Is the hypothesis wrong? Results from independent experiments Report Hypothesis accepted: THEORY New experiments based...
In other words... 1. Observe some aspects of the universe 2. Invent a description consistent with what you have observed: hypothesis 3. Use the hypothesis to make predictions 4. Test the predictions with experiments: do (not) change hypothesis and/or the experimental design 5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no discrepancies between theory and experiments
Ethics • - Plagiarism: • when you copy someone else’s work or ideas • DON’T do THAT!! • Falsification of data: it happens… also in big companies • be honest! • Who owns the work done????? • - Importance of research in human ethics: • relation human being vs. research
Where to publish your work - Quality vs. Quantity - Journals related to your research field - Look for visibility: a) Good ranked journal b) Impact factor B= 1992 cites to articles published in 1990-91 C= number of articles published in 1990-91 D= B/C = 1992 impact factor
Definitions - Objectives: What? - Methodology: How? - Results: output, objective information - Discussion: analysis and comparison with known results - Conclusions: inferences, what to do next, impact...
…putting our research on paper - Title: indicate main discoveries, make it SEXY! -Abstract: reflect main story, call attention, brief! - Introduction: introduce topic, terminology, existing research, focus of the paper - Methodology: provide detail to repeat the experiement -Results: providegraphics and numbers, compare different “treatments” - Conclusions & Discussion: give answers to objectives, explain discrepancies and unexpected findings, state importance of discoveries, outlook, implications -References: give a list of related literature and information sources
…writing stile - Title: short and simple -Abstract: past tense and passive voice, concise, no citations, no tables, no graphics - Introduction: present tense and past tense for literature review - Methodology: past tense, take care about units, variables (SI) -Results: past tense, - Conclusions & Discussion: present tense (past tense if you relate to results), allows scientific speculation - References: depends on journal but author/editors must be included
...Example of Homework RESEACH OBJECTIVE Why did FC Barcelona lose last Sunday in Sevilla? SUBOBJECTIVES Is the referee a Real Madrid supporter? Was Ronaldihno thinking about dancing salsa? What was the pressure of the ball? How was the state of the peach and how this influences the players? LITERATURE REVIEW Looking for the state of known facts Comment the state of known facts REFERENCES Write them down
Literature review • Classification and evaluation of what accredited • people have written • What should we do? • a) We need ability to find • information • b) Use the library, electronic • libraries, etc • c) Reference programs
Do you love reviewing? • We must recognise relevant information • We must make a selection according to OUR needs • We must identify controversy…this is a driving force • We must report the existing literature and evaluate it
…strategy of reviewing Bibliographic research We have got a lot of time We have NOT got a lot of time and… that is normal! • Look in indifferent • kind of journals • Look for reviews and • specific papers • - Read papers • Look for GOOD journals • Look for reviews: they also • refer to “old” papers • Read abstracts and decide • which paper to read
…Hopefully most of the time • What are the authors trying to answer? • Is the research important, innovative…? • How were the data measured? • What information do you get of the sample? • What are the data? • What are the conclusions? • Do you understand and believe the data, • the explanation and the findings? • - Can you use this work for your own research?
…and we ask ourselves… • Questions that the literature review answers • How good are my skills? • Have I analysed the literature? • Is part of this literature contrary to my perspective, • or point of view • - Is my literature review useful for other people?
Let´s make beer Hops are perennial plants... ...and they have been used... ...for beer production... Importance of hops (or yeast) a) to enhance foam stability and b) beer taste
…Tutorials Monday 22nd November…from 3 until 9.00 pm… ANY TIME YOU WANT!! Come and visit (Room 215) and remember: Smiling is HEALTHY!!
References • Literature • G. Couvalis, The Philosophy of Science, SAGE publications, London 1997 • T. Kuhn, The structure of scientific revolutions, Chicago University Press, Chicago, 1970A. • A. Einstein and L. Infeld: The evolution of physics, Simon and Schuster Inc, New York, 1966 • B. Brison, A short history of nearly everything, Transworld Publishers, London, 2003 • R. Tarnas, The passion of the western mind, Pimlico, London, 1991 • M. H. Shamos, Great experiments in physics, Dover, New York, 1959 • Literature search: • ISI Web of Science: http://go5.isiknowledge.com/portal.cgi • Electronic journals: http://www.etse.urv.es/bibweb/index.php • http://www.endnote.com • Patent search: • American patent database: http://www.uspto.gov/patft/index.html • European paten office: www.european-patent-office.org/ • Scientific writing • http://www.pfos.hr/~hengl/RT/Hengl_RT_0902.pdf • http://www.writing4science.com/ • B. Gustavii, How to write and illustrate a scientific paper, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 2003 • Ethics: • R. Bell, Impure science: fraud, compromise and political influence in scintific research,, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1992