Ancient China. I. Achievements of the Ancient Chinese A. Great Wall of China-largest masonary construction in the world. 1. Defensive wall stretching 1400 miles, protecting China from enemies to the north. 2. Helped to keep the vast land of China
Ancient China I. Achievements of the Ancient Chinese A. Great Wall of China-largest masonary construction in the world. 1. Defensive wall stretching 1400 miles, protecting China from enemies to the north. 2. Helped to keep the vast land of China unified. Great Wall to the north; desert to the west; Himalayas Mts. to the southwest; ocean to the east.
Ancient Chinese Achievements B. Paper J. Umbrella C. Gunpowder K. Paper money D. The wheelbarrow L. Playing cards E. The crossbow M. Use of petroleum and nat. F. Masts and Sailing gas as fuel G. Kites N. Acupuncture H. Parachutes O. The hoe-for farming I. Matches P. Martial arts Q. compass R. Silk Road-used to trade silks, rugs, bronze and other aspects of Chinese culture to the rest of the civilized world west of China.
The Great Dynasties of Ancient China The Shang A. First great dynasty in China was the Shang dynasty (1800 B.C. to 1123 B.C.) 1. Began along the Huang He river valley 2. During Shang rule-Chinese writing developed a. scribes wrote on narrow strips of bamboo or wood and had to write vertically rather than horizontally-Chinese today write and read vertically left to right.
The Shang 3. Early Chinese civilizations were polytheists. a. Rulers claimed to have a mandate from heaven. b. During the Shang dynasty human sacrifice was carried out to show devotion and respect to the gods. The Shang also believed they received wisdom for the gods in return for offering sacrifices. c. Thousands of ancient skeletal remains have been found piled on top of each other near the palaces where the Shang dynasty ruled- show signs of being sacrificed.
The Shang 4. Archaeologists believe the Shang practiced slavery. 5. Made exquisite bronze jugs, urns, and bowls 6. Shang me of wisdom used oracle bones and oracle shells to learn about future battles, leaders, and possible disasters. a. Tortoise shells and bones would be heated over a hot fire until cracked. The cracks would then be interpreted. 7. Developed silk- a process using silkworm cocoons from mulberry trees. Divulging the secrets of silk making led to execution.
The Shang 8. Most people living under Shang rule were very poor peasants. a. They farmed wheat, millet, and rice. b. Peasants were heavily taxed and always owned rent to their landlord- it was not uncommon that a father would sell their children into slavery to pay the rent. 9. Because of poor leadership, the Shang dynasty collapsed in 1123 B.C.
The Zhou Dynasty 1. The Zhou dynasty ruled China from 1027 B.C. to 256 B.C. 2. The Zhou dynasty ruled China during a time period called the Era of Warring States. a. Much of their rule was marked by constant fighting between the different states of the land of China. 3. Responding to the chaos and disorder of the time, important thinkers established philosophies by which Chinese people could live a better life in a more harmonious China.
Philosopher Confucius Confucianism Believed that social order, harmony and good government could be restored in China if society was organized around 5 basic relationships. Ruler-Subject Father-son Husband-wife Older brother-younger brother Friend-friend
The Philosophers Lao-Tzu Taoism (Daoism) Believed only the natural order was important. The natural order involves relations among all living things. He said that a universal force called the Dao guides all things. Dao means “the way” Daoists pursed scientific studies.
The PhilosophersHan-Fei Tzu & Li SiLegalism • Believed that a highly efficient government was the key to restoring oder in society. • Government should use the law to end civil disorder and restore harmony • Believed that a ruler should provide rich rewards for people who carried out their duties well. • The disobedient should be harshly punished • Government should control ideas as well as actions
Qin Dynasty 1. Ruled land of China 221 B.C. to 206 B.C. 2. Forced China to unify-it is estimated that they executed 2/3 of their opponents. a. Suppressed the power of warlords and centralized gov’t b. Qin dynasty built Great Wall of China to help keep out invading enemies from the north. 1. Built by 200,000 convicts and 100,000 soldiers 2. Thousands of laborers died and were buried as fill in the Great Wall. 3. Laborers were forced to work and would have to leave their families for several years.
Qin Dynasty 4. It is believed many workers were put to death during construction so they would not reveal the secrets of construction. c. Unified written language d. Built 5000 miles of roads e. Passports were needed to travel f. Standardized the currency g. Buried alive 460 of the most distinguished scholars viewed as a threat to dynasty 1. organized mass book burnings-many of the writings about Confucius were destroyed a. Any writing supporting the state warlords were destroyed
Qin Dynasty H. Built a great military a. Many peasants joined the military under the Qin dynasty because it offered them the opportunity to improve their station in life. b. Some historians believe that the amount of heads cut off in battle directly increased a soldiers’ chances of moving up the military ranks. 1. One story has it that in one battle 450,000 of the enemy was captured and all 450,000 of these captives were beheaded.
“First Emperor”-Shi Huangdi I. The leader of the Qin dynasty was Shi Huangdi A. He was called “First Emperor” B. Took all the land from the warlords-became first emperor of China (China may be named after this dynasty) 1. All brass spears, arrows, and chariots of warlords turned in C. Shi Huangdi died in 210 B.C., after ruling for 11 years.
Terra Cotta Warriors 1. As soon as he became emperor, he already had 700,000 convicts working on a mausoleum. a. Automatic crossbows were set up for robbers b. Those who had worked on the mausoleum, Shi’s concubines, and his many prized material possessions were sealed in the tomb. c. 7000 life size clay statues (each with a unique face) of his army were buried in battle formation, along with clay horses and chariots. 1. Legend has it that if a soldier was asked to pose with the statue and refused they would suffer death.
Han Dynasty 1. Ruled China for over 400 years- (140 B.C. to around 220 A.D.) A. Han leaders used diplomacy as their guiding principle for ruling the states of China-relied less on warfare. B. Trade occurred with Europe and the Middle East by way of the Silk Road C. Time of great wealth and population explosion in China D. The arts and scholarship flourished.
Han Dynasty 1. They adopted Confucianism-which strongly influences China today 2. The religion Buddhism spread from India into China during this time 3. Daoism also thrived during the Han dynasty.