The Dual Revolutions of the 18th and 19th centuries The French and Industrial Revolutions and their aftermath
The Industrial Revolution Economic, Political and Social Change
Definition • The process of change from an agrarian and handicraft based economy to one dominated by industry and machine manufacture • Arnold Toynbee first used the term to describe developments in England from 1760 to 1840.
Mechanization • During the first half of the 19th century, the European manufacturing process shifted from small-scale production by hand at home to large-scale production by machine in a factory setting.
Why England? • “Britannia rules the waves” • Profitable agriculture—Enclosure movement • Coal and iron in Lancashire and Yorkshire • Money to risk on innovation from profits of the colonial empire and slavery • The colonies supply raw materials (cotton, sugar) and also serve as a market for the products of the factories (English cotton cloth destroys the domestic textile industry in India.
Characteristics of the I.R. • Starts in English cotton textile industry. • New machines increase production with less human energy. • The spinning jenny, power loom, etc. are first powered by water power, then b y the steam engine, using coal as a fuel. • New organization of work, the “FACTORY SYSTEM”, based on the division of labor and the specialization of function. • Improvements in transportation—canals, roads, steam locomotive and steamship. • Application of applied science to industry: engineering, chemistry
New Inventions of the Industrial Revolution
1765 James Hargreaves – the Spinning Jenny • First invention to improve on the spinning wheel • Could be located in homes of spinners (spinsters) • Vital to the domestic or “putting out” system of cloth production
Richard Arkwright:“Pioneer of the Factory System” The “Water Frame” 1769
1765: James Watt – the Steam Engine • Most important invention of the I.R. • Coal powered-heats water to create steam that forces piston to turn a wheel. • 1,000 engines in use by 1800 • Applied to transportation technology
Factory Production • Concentrates production in oneplace [materials, machines, labor]. • Located near sources of power [rather than labor or markets]. • Requires a lot of capital investment[factory, machines, etc.] morethan skilled labor. • Only 10% of English industry in 1850.
The Factory System • Rigid schedule. • 12-14 hour day, six days a week. • Dangerous conditions. • Mind-numbing monotony.
At the Expense of Workers • The shift meant high quality products at competitive prices, but often at the expense of workers. For example, the raw wool and cotton that fed the British textile mills came from: • Lands converted from farming to sheep raising, leaving farm workers without jobs • The southern plantations of the United States, which were dependent upon slave labor
CHILD LABOR IN MINES AND FACTORIES • In 1788, two thirds of the workers in English textile mills were children. • They worked up to 14 hours a day in dangerous and unsanitary conditions. • Poor families could not survive if their children were not employed. • Factory Act of 1833 limits hours of work and forbids employment under the age of nine. Ages 11-18 12 hours a day Ages 9-11 8 hours a day
1850: Population Living in Cities Urban Growth • Those who could no longer make a living on the land migrated from the countryside to the cities to seek work in the factories.
Population Growth • At the same time, the population of Europe continued to grow.
The Plight of the Cities • The sheer number of human beings put pressure on city resources: • Housing, water, sewers, food supplies, and lighting were completely inadequate. • Slums grew and disease, especially cholera, ravaged the population. • Crime increased and became a way of life for those who could make a living in no other way.
Conditions in the Countryside • The only successful farmers were those with large landholdings who could afford agricultural innovations. • Most peasants: • Didn’t have enough land to support themselves • Were devastated by poor harvests (e.g., the Irish Potato Famine of 1845-47) • Were forced to move to the cities to find work in the factories.
The Role of the Railroads • The railroads, built during the 1830s and 1840s: • Enabled people to leave the place of their birth and migrate easily to the cities. • Allowed cheaper and more rapid transport of raw materials and finished products. • Created an increased demand for iron and steel and a skilled labor force.
The Labor Force • No single description could include all of these 19th century workers: • Factory workers • Urban artisans • Domestic system craftsmen • Household servants • Miners • Countryside peddlers • Farm workers • Railroad workers • Variations in duties, income, and working conditions made it difficult for them to unite.
The Condition of Labor • All working people, however, faced possible unemployment, with little or no provision for security. • In addition, they were subject to various kinds of discipline: • The closing of factory gates to late workers • Fines for tardiness • Dismissal for drunkenness • Public censure for poor quality workmanship • Beatings for non-submissiveness
Proletarianization • Factory workers lose control of the means of production • Factory owners provide the financial capital to construct factory and purchase machines and raw materials • Factory workers can only exchange their labor for wages
Worker Resistance • The Luddites:1811-1816 Craftsman destroy the new textile machines • 1819 “Peterloo” massacre: Troops fire on workers demonstrating in Manchester • The Chartist Movement: 3 million sign the People’s Charter, which called for universal manhood suffrage and the secret ballot • Trade unions were illegal
Family Structures Changed • With the decline of the domestic system and the rise of the factory system, family life changed. • At first, the entire family, including the children, worked in the factory, just as they had at home. • Later, family life became fragmented (the father worked in the factory, the mother handled domestic chores, the children went to school).
Family as a Unit of Consumption • In short, the European family changed from being a unit of production and consumption to being a unit of consumption alone.
Gender-Determined Roles • That transformation prepared the way for gender-determined roles. • Women came to be associated with domestic duties, such as housekeeping, food preparation, child rearing and nurturing, and household management. • The man came to be associated almost exclusively with breadwinning.
Political and social changes • Decline in the importance of the aristocracy. • Rise in power of the “Bourgeoisie” • Liberalism becomes the dominant ideology of the middle classes • Working class organizes in labor unions and socialist parties based on the ideas of Karl Marx (1848 The Communist Manifesto)
Karl Marx and Friedrich EngelsThe Communist Manifesto 1848 • History has a direction—it moves along through necessary stages • History is moved along by changes in the economic life of each society—the mode of production and exchange • History is moved along by class struggle—a struggle between dominant and the subordinate social classes • In the industrial era, the struggle is between the bourgeoisie (the owners of the means of production) and the proletariat (workers who only own their own labor) • The Communist Revolution will destroy capitalism and the class system.
The Revolutionary Ideas -Ideological Foundation for Political Liberalism and Democracy
Liberty • The notion of individual human rights • A new type of government in which the people are sovereign • The importance of a representative assembly • The importance of a written constitution • The notion of self-determination • Freedom to accumulate property
Equality • Equality of rights and civil liberties • Equality before the law • No special privileges for the rich • Equality of opportunity • “Careers Open to Talent” • Inherent tension between liberty and equality
“The Atlantic Revolution” • French Revolution was a part of a whole series of revolutions which took place during the late 18th century --Political agitation in England, Ireland, Holland, Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Germany, Hungary, Poland and the North and South American colonies • One big movement of revolutionary agitation that continues well into the 19th c.
The American Revolution • 1760’s:British Parliament taxes the 13 North American colonies to pay for the Seven Years war with France • 1774 Continental Congress: “No taxation without representation’ • 1775 Battles at Lexi9ngton and Concord • July 4, 1776: Declaration of Independence – “All Men are Created Equal.” Influenced by ideas of John Locke and the Enlightenment. • American victory made possible by military support from France and the Netherlands. • 1783 Peace of Paris • The significance of the American constitution (1787) • The influence of the American Revolution on revolutions throughout the world
The Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 • When in the Course of human events it becomes necessary for one people to dissolve the political bands which have connected them with another and to assume among the powers of the earth, the separate and equal station to which the Laws of Nature and of Nature's God entitle them, a decent respect to the opinions of mankind requires that they should declare the causes which impel them to the separation. • We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness. — That to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed, — That whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness. Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security. — Such has been the patient sufferance of these Colonies; and such is now the necessity which constrains them to alter their former Systems of Government. The history of the present King of Great Britain is a history of repeated injuries and usurpations, all having in direct object the establishment of an absolute Tyranny over these States. To prove this, let Facts be submitted to a candid world.
The Bill of Rights- first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution, ratified on December 15, 1791 • Amendment I: Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances. • Amendment II: A well regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. • Amendment III: No soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law. • Amendment IV: The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized. • Amendment V: No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a grand jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the militia, when in actual service in time of war or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb; nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation. • Amendment VI: In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the state and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him; to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the assistance of counsel for his defense. • Amendment VII: In suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law. • Amendment VIII: Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted. • Amendment IX: The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people. • Amendment X: The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the states, are reserved to the states respectively, or to the people.
Revolutions in Mexico and Central and South America • Led by wealthy Creole class • Goal: Independence from Spanish and Portuguese rule • Simon Bolivar, the father of Latin American independence: led revolts in Columbia, Venezuela, Ecuador and Peru • Bolivar cooperated with Jose de San Martin and Bernardo O’Higgins in successful revolts in Argentina and Chile • Bolivar’s goal “a United Sates of South America” • By 1825 Spanish rule ended in South America • 1822 Independence of Brazil under Emperor Pedro I • 1821 End of Spanish rule in Mexico and Central America • Continued dominance of the white Creole elites
Background of Haitian Revolution • Treaty of Ryswick (1697): Spain cedes Western third of Hispaniola to France • From 1697 to 1789, Saint Domingue becomes the richest colony in the world based on slave produced sugar, coffee indigo dye, cotton, tobacco and exotic spices • The plantation system on S.D. was the most brutal the world had ever seen.
1791: The structure of Saint Domingue society • 20,000 whites (Planters and Petit Blancs) • 50,000 “free people of color” (affranchis) • 500,000 African slaves (most born in Africa) • 10,000 to 20,000 Maroons (runaway slaves) living in the mountains.
Impact of American and French Revolutions on Saint Domingue • 500 gens de couleur (affranchis) serve in French army and participate in the American Revolution. Bring revolutionary ideas back to S.D. • The planters want an independent S.D. that they can control without interference from Paris. • The petit blancs are the only group loyal to France; hostile to the free persons of color and want to retain slavery. • The affranchis want a free Saint Domingue—with slavery- and equal rights with the whites. • The slaves want only one thing—freedom!
The Haitian Revolution Begins • August 21, 1791: revolt of the slaves on the northern plain. • More than a thousand planters and their families killed • Whites and affranchis unite to put down the rebellion
Francois-DominiqueToussaint (L’Ouverture) 1744-1803 • Former slave, 47 years old, joins rebels as a medical officer • Rises to become a general and the leader of the revolution • To get rid of French he allies with the English and Spanish