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Experiment 9. Part A: Simulation of a Transformer Part B: Making an Inductor Part C: Measurement of Inductance Part D: Making a Transformer. Inductors & Transformers. How do transformers work? How to make an inductor? How to measure inductance? How to make a transformer?. ?.

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experiment 9

Experiment 9

Part A: Simulation of a Transformer

Part B: Making an Inductor

Part C: Measurement of Inductance

Part D: Making a Transformer

inductors transformers
Inductors & Transformers
  • How do transformers work?
  • How to make an inductor?
  • How to measure inductance?
  • How to make a transformer?

?

Electronic Instrumentation

some interesting inductors
Some Interesting Inductors
  • Induction Heating

Electronic Instrumentation

some interesting inductors1
Some Interesting Inductors
  • Induction Heating in Aerospace

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some interesting inductors2
Some Interesting Inductors
  • Induction Forming

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some interesting inductors3

Primary

Coil

Secondary

Coil

Some Interesting Inductors
  • Coin Flipper

Electronic Instrumentation

some interesting inductors4
Some Interesting Inductors
  • GE Genura Light

Electronic Instrumentation

some interesting transformers
Some Interesting Transformers
  • A huge range in sizes

Electronic Instrumentation

wall warts
Wall Warts

Electronic Instrumentation

some interesting transformers1
Some Interesting Transformers
  • High Temperature Superconducting Transformer

Electronic Instrumentation

household power
Household Power
  • 7200V transformed to 240V for household use

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inductors review
Inductors-Review
  • General form of I-V relationship
  • For steady-state sine wave excitation

Electronic Instrumentation

inductors review1
Inductors-Review
  • Simple R-L Filter
    • High Pass Filter
    • Corner Frequency

Electronic Instrumentation

inductors review2
Inductors-Review

Electronic Instrumentation

making an inductor
Making an Inductor
  • For a simple cylindrical inductor (called a solenoid), we wind N turns of wire around a cylindrical form. The inductance is ideally given by

where this expression only holds when the length d is very much greater than the diameter 2rc

Electronic Instrumentation

making an inductor1
Making an Inductor
  • Note that the constant o = 4 x 10-7 H/m is required to have inductance in Henries (named after Joseph Henry of Albany)
  • For magnetic materials, we use  instead, which can typically be 105 times larger for materials like iron
  •  is called the permeability

Electronic Instrumentation

some typical permeabilities
Some Typical Permeabilities
  • Air 1.257x10-6 H/m
  • Ferrite U M33 9.42x10-4 H/m
  • Nickel 7.54x10-4 H/m
  • Iron 6.28x10-3 H/m
  • Ferrite T38 1.26x10-2 H/m
  • Silicon GO steel 5.03x10-2 H/m
  • supermalloy 1.26 H/m

Electronic Instrumentation

making an inductor2
Making an Inductor
  • If the coil length is much small than the diameter (rwis the wire radius)

Such a coil is used in the

metal detector at the right

Electronic Instrumentation

making an inductor3
Making an Inductor
  • All wires have some finite resistance. Much of the time, this resistance is negligible when compared with other circuit components.
  • Resistance of a wire is given by

l is the wire length

A is the wire cross sectional area (prw2)

s is the wire conductivity

Electronic Instrumentation

some typical conductivities
Some Typical Conductivities
  • Silver 6.17x107 Siemens/m
  • Copper 5.8x107 S/m
  • Aluminum 3.72x107 S/m
  • Iron 1x107 S/m
  • Sea Water 5 S/m
  • Fresh Water 25x10-6 S/m
  • Teflon 1x10-20 S/m

Electronic Instrumentation

wire resistance
Wire Resistance
  • Using the Megaconverter at http://www.megaconverter.com/Mega2/

(see course website)

Electronic Instrumentation

transformers
Transformers
  • Note that for a transformer, the symbol shows two inductors. One is the primary (source end) and one is the secondary (load end): LS& LL
  • The inductors work as expected, but they also couple to one another through their mutual inductance: M2=k2 LS LL

Symbol for transformer

Electronic Instrumentation

transformers1
Transformers

IS

IL

Note Current Direction

  • Let the current through the primary be
  • Let the current through the secondary be
  • The voltage across the primary inductor is
  • The voltage across the secondary inductor is

Electronic Instrumentation

transformers2
Transformers
  • Sum of primary voltages must equal the source
  • Sum of secondary voltages must equal zero

Electronic Instrumentation

transformers3
Transformers
  • Note the following simplifying information for cylindrical or toroidal inductors
  • For

Electronic Instrumentation

transformers4
Transformers
  • Cylinders (solenoids)
  • Toroids

Electronic Instrumentation

transformers5
Transformers
  • Transformers are designed so that the inductive impedances are much larger than any resistance in the circuit. Then, from the second loop equation

Electronic Instrumentation

transformers6
Transformers
  • The voltages across the primary and secondary terminals of the transformer are related by

Note that the coil with more turns has the larger voltage

Electronic Instrumentation

transformers7
Transformers
  • The input impedance of the primary winding reflects the load impedance. It can be determined from the loop equations

Electronic Instrumentation

transformer rectifier
Transformer Rectifier
  • Adding a full wave rectifier to the transformer makes a low voltage DC power supply, like the wall warts used on most of the electronics we buy these days.

Electronic Instrumentation

transformer rectifier1
Transformer Rectifier

Filtered

Unfiltered

Electronic Instrumentation

determining inductance
Determining Inductance
  • Calculate it from dimensions and material properties
  • Measure using commercial bridge (expensive device)
  • Infer inductance from response of a circuit. This latter approach is the cheapest and usually the simplest to apply. Most of the time, we can determine circuit parameters from circuit performance.

Electronic Instrumentation

determining inductance1
Determining Inductance
  • For this circuit, a resonance should occur for the parallel combination of the unknown inductor and the known capacitor. If we find this frequency, we can find the inductance.

Electronic Instrumentation

determining inductance2
Determining Inductance
  • Reminder—The parallel combination of L and C goes to infinity at resonance.

Electronic Instrumentation

project 3 beakman s motor
Project 3: Beakman’s Motor
  • The coil in this motor can be characterized in the same way

Electronic Instrumentation

optional project paperclip launcher
Optional Project: Paperclip Launcher
  • A small disposable flash camera can be used to build a magnetic paperclip launcher

Electronic Instrumentation