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Jesse Markow Manager-Communication and Business Development WIDA Consortium. Introduction to the WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards. Overview of the Presentation. Overview of Language Acquisition: Myths and Misconceptions
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Jesse MarkowManager-Communication and Business DevelopmentWIDA Consortium Introduction to the WIDA English Language Proficiency Standards © 2010 Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System, on behalf of the WIDA Consortium www.wida.us
Overview of the Presentation • Overview of Language Acquisition: Myths and Misconceptions • Academic Language and its Relationship to Academic Content Knowledge • Introduction to the structure and organization of the WIDA ELP Standards • Key to Implementation of WIDA ELP Standards: Transformations • Using the WIDA ELP Standards to differentiate language • Adapting lessons
Quiz • Do this quiz with at least one other person, but no more that two other people • As a team, read carefully each statement and decide if the statement is true or false • For each statement, justify your answer; i.e. “why do you think it is true/false?”
Myths and Misconceptionsabout Language Acquisition • When an ELL is able to speak English fluently, he or she has mastered it • The more time students spend in the mainstream, the quicker they learn the language • Teaching academic language is only about teaching vocabulary • ELLs will acquire academic English faster if their parents speak English at home • According to research, students in ESL-only programs with no schooling in their native language take 1-2 years to reach grade level norms
Myth #1 When an ELL is able to speak English fluently, he or she has mastered it • Students need to be able to LISTEN, SPEAK, READ and WRITE in English in order to be successful in school • Speaking social English fluently is not enough, students should also develop academic oral language • We must build upon what students CAN do
Myth #2 The more time students spend in the mainstream, the quicker they learn the language • Students learn most efficiently when instruction is at their zone of proximal development (ZPD); classrooms with no language supports may be beyond some students ZPD • Pull out situations, on the other hand, do not always provide separate education that is equitable to the general education classroom • Collaboration between general education teachers and ESL specialists is key to effective pedagogy for ELLs
Myth #3 Teaching academic language is only about teaching vocabulary • Look at the following passage and write down: • Important information • Details • Vocabulary needed to solve the problem • What else may you need to know
A train carrying 179 passengers leaves the station traveling due east at a rate of 45 miles per hour. A second train carrying 220 passengers leaves a different station an hour later traveling due west on the same track, going 60 miles per hourIf the stations are 255 miles apart, how many miles from the halfway point between the stations will the trains collide?
Myth #3 • Teaching academic language is about teaching the discourse used to communicate and understand ideas and concepts • Academic discourse includes vocabulary, language rules and norms, linguistic complexity, pragmatics, socio cultural usage, etc.
Myth #4 ELLs will acquire academic English faster if their parents speak English at home • Parents should speak to their children in their strongest language for the appropriate context in order to • Model appropriate use of language • Promote higher order thinking skills • Maintain quality family conversations • Develop bilingualism, biliteracy and bicognition
Myth #5 According to research, students in ESL-only programs with no schooling in their native language take 1-2 years to reach grade level norms • The amount of time that takes ELLs to reach grade level norms depends on: • Instruction, practice and feedback on their use of academic language • Student’s prior schooling • Socio economic position • Content knowledge • Socio cultural factors • Other
Debrief • Language development occurs at different rates in different domains (listening, speaking, reading and writing). • Language development needs to be scaffolded; as educators we need tools to achieve this. • Academic language is more than just vocabulary; it includes the rules of language and the discourse we use to make meaning of concepts or express ideas. • In addition to academic language and content, educators must consider ELLs’ unique experiences, background and educational history when planning instruction and assessment.
What is the Relationship of Academic Language to Academic Content Knowledge?
Language Across the Curriculum Consider the essential questions below: • What constitutes Academic Language Proficiency? • What constitutes AcademicContent Knowledge? • What is the relationship between Academic LanguageProficiency and Academic Content Knowledge?
More on Language Proficiency and Content Knowledge How many different ways can you read the following mathematical expression? 3+2=
Let’s “discuss” this a little more… You will write 5 paragraphs. Each paragraph will discuss a different topic: • Your best friend
Let’s “discuss” this a little more… You will write 5 paragraphs. Each paragraph will discuss a different topic: • Your best friend • Your favorite holiday
Let’s “discuss” this a little more… You will write 5 paragraphs. Each paragraph will discuss a different topic: • Your best friend • Your favorite holiday • The Pythagorean Theorem
Let’s “discuss” this a little more… You will write 5 paragraphs. Each paragraph will discuss a different topic: • Your best friend • Your favorite holiday • The Pythagorean Theorem • Photosynthesis
Let’s “discuss” this a little more… You will write 5 paragraphs. Each paragraph will discuss a different topic: • Your best friend • Your favorite holiday • The Pythagorean Theorem • Photosynthesis • The effect of World Wars I and II in the Role of Women in the job market of America
WIDA Consortium Variations of Language Language of Social Studies Language of Science Language of Language Arts Language of Mathematics General academic language for knowing, thinking, reading, writing, visualizing Language of Computer Science Language of Music Foundation of home and community language and cultural factors Adapted from Zwiers (2008)
Language and Content Knowledge • Language proficiency involves the language associated with the content areas. • Content knowledge reflects the declarative (what) and procedural knowledge (how) associated with the content. • WIDA ELP standards focus on academic language; academic content standards focus on academic content.
Why are English language proficiency (ELP) standards necessary? To facilitate ELL students’ English proficiency attainment, access to content knowledge, and ultimately, their academic success. To provide a curriculum/assessment resource anchored in academic content standards. To establish a common yardstick to define and measure how ELLs acquire language across the domains of listening, speaking, reading, and writing. To comply with federal law (No Child Left Behind Act of 2001) requiring ELP standards and ELP standards-based assessments.
Five WIDA ELP Standards Standard 1- SIL: English language learners communicate for SOCIAL AND INSTRUCTIONAL purposes within the school setting. Standard 2 – LoLA: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of LANGUAGE ARTS. Standard 3– LoMA:English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of MATHEMATICS. Standard 4– LoSC:English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SCIENCE. Standard 5 – LoSS:English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SOCIAL STUDIES.
Five Grade-Level Clusters The 2007 WIDA ELP Standards are organized by the following Grade-level clusters: PreK−K Grades 1−2 Grades 3−5 Grades 6−8 Grades 9−12
Four Language Domains Listening ─ process, understand, interpret, and evaluate spoken language in a variety of situations Speaking ─ engage in oral communication in a variety of situations for a variety of purposes and audiences Reading ─process, interpret, and evaluate written language, symbols, and text with understanding and fluency Writing ─ engage in written communication in a variety of forms for a variety of purposes and audiences
Levels of English Language Proficiency 6 5 REACHING BRIDGING 4 EXPANDING 3 DEVELOPING 2 BEGINNING 1 ENTERING
Criteria for Performance Definitions Linguistic Complexity: The amount and quality of speech or writing for a given situation Vocabulary Usage: The specificity of words or phrases for a given context Language Control: The comprehensibility of the communication based on the amount and type of errors 6 REACHING 1 2 3 4 5 ENTERING BEGINNING DEVELOPING EXPANDING BRIDGING
Task Analysis Look at the following tasks and decide the proficiency language level that a student should possess to engage in each of them: ___ Draw a poster describing the water cycle ___ Write a lab report for an experiment performed in class ___ Explain how a problem was solved ___ Follow directions on how to create a timeline of their life events ___ Write a persuasive essay
How can I use this new knowledge in my instruction? • To differentiate the language used in • Directions • Instruction • Processes: activities, readings • Products: assessments, presentations, assignments • To guide language instruction • Listening • Speaking • Reading • Writing
Language Development Language Proficiency Vocabulary Usage Linguistic Complexity Language Control 5 Bridging 4 Expanding 3 Developing 2 Beginning 1 Entering
Model Performance Indicators Provide examples (models) of assessable language skills Reflect the second language acquisition process Describe how students can use the language Provide the anchors for curriculum, instruction, and assessment
Organization of MPIs within StandardsExample: Social & Instructional; Grades 6-8
Organization of MPIs within Standards MPI STRAND
Summative Is amenable to large-scale testing or classroom assessment Includes sensory and graphic supports Contains model performance indicators that are observable and measurable Formative Corresponds to everyday classroom practice Includes sensory, graphic, and interactive supports Contains model performance indicators that include strategies, technology, and long-term projects Standards Frameworks
Centrality of the ELP Standards Classroom Assessments W-APT™ACCESS for ELLs® Ongoing Instruction & Assessment Formative Framework Summative Framework English Language ProficiencyStandards& PerformanceDefinitions ModelPerformanceIndicators:Formative ModelPerformanceIndicators:Summative
A Model Performance Indicator Grade Level Cluster: 1-2 English Language Proficiency Standard 4: English language learners communicate information, ideas, and concepts necessary for academic success in the content area of SCIENCE. Domain: Speaking
The Elements of the MPI Model performance indicators consist of 3 elements: • The Language Function • The Content Stem or Sample Topic • The Support or Strategy
Transformations The Key to your Lesson Planning and Curriculum Development