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FISHES. Agnatha Chondrichthyes Osteichthyes. General Characteristics. Ectothermic Vertebrates Have scales Swim with fins Almost all exclusively aquatic Filter oxygen from water over gills. Classes of Fish. Agnatha – Jawless Fish Chondrichthyes – Cartilagenous Fish

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fishes

FISHES

Agnatha

Chondrichthyes

Osteichthyes

general characteristics
General Characteristics
  • Ectothermic
  • Vertebrates
  • Have scales
  • Swim with fins
  • Almost all exclusively aquatic
  • Filter oxygen from water over gills
classes of fish
Classes of Fish
  • Agnatha – Jawless Fish
  • Chondrichthyes – Cartilagenous Fish
  • Osteichthyes – Bony Fish
question 1
Question #1:
  • What is the name for a person who studies fishes?
  • Ichthyologist
early fish
Early Fish
  • Earliest - Filter feeders, no jaws, no fins
  • Ostracoderms – jawless, heavy bony plates
  • Lobe finned fishes – Coelocanths
slide7
Fins
  • Caudal – propels fish forward
  • Dorsal – stabilizer
  • Anal – stabilizer
  • Pectoral – hold fish steady, maneuvering
  • Pelvic – hold fish steady, maneuvering
scale types
Scale Types
  • Cycloid – smooth surface, on bony fish
    • Carp
    • Salmon
  • Ctenoid – teeth along ridge (rough to touch), on bony fish
    • Bass
    • Bluegill
    • Perch
scale types9
Scale Types
  • Placoid – Look like tiny teeth, feel like sandpaper, on cartilagenous fish
    • Sharks
    • Rays
  • Ganoid – hard, interlocking, diamond-shaped, on primitive fish
    • Gar
question 2
Question #2:
  • What is the purpose of a fish’s scales?
  • Shield against injury, help to move through the water
maintaining buoyancy
Maintaining Buoyancy
  • Swim bladder
    • Uses air
    • Most bony fishes
    • Can be used as a second “lung”
  • Liver
    • Uses oil
    • Sharks
    • Most sharks must constantly swim to avoid sinking
locomotion
Locomotion
  • Use fins and body wall to push against water
  • Forked tails reduce drag in the water
  • Muscles in a zig-zag shape
    • Each contraction moves large parts of the body wall
gills
Gills
  • Obtain oxygen
  • Give off carbon dioxide
  • Most have an operculum
  • Oxygen dropped into circulatory system pumped by 2-chambered heart
gas exchange
Gas Exchange
  • Pump ventilation
  • Ram ventilation
  • Exchange of gases occurs in capillary network in gill lamellae; water and blood flow in opposite directions over lamellae = Countercurrent Exchange
excretion and osmoregulation
Freshwater fishes

never drink

Lots of nephrons

Ions are reabsorbed

Marine fishes

Drink constantly

Less blood is filtered

Water is reabsorbed

Excretion and Osmoregulation
senses
Senses
  • Limited vision, focus by moving lens back and forth
  • Olfactory receptors
  • Magnetic receptors
  • Touch
sense cont
Sense (cont.)
  • Hearing – sound conducted through skull
  • Lateral line system – senses movement of other organisms around them
  • Electroreception – sense electrical impulses generated by muscle twitches
reproduction
Reproduction
  • Oviparous (most fish)
    • Release eggs, young develop outside mom
  • Ovoviviparous (some cartilaginous fishes)
    • Eggs remain inside mom
    • Eggs at a later stage of development before they are released
  • Viviparous (a few sharks)
    • Young born alive
class agnatha
Class Agnatha
  • Cartilagenous
  • Simplest and oldest vertebrates
  • Jawless
  • No scales
  • Scavengers or parasites
  • Lamprey, hagfish
class chondrichthyes
Class Chondrichthyes
  • Hinged jaw
  • Paired fins
  • Scales
  • Muscles attached to skin, not skeleton
  • Cartilagenous skeleton
sharks
Sharks
  • Jaws not attached to brain case
    • Can protrude during attack
    • 20 tons per square inch for an 8’ shark
  • Size varies (few inches to over 40 feet)
  • Variable body shapes
skates and rays
Skates and Rays
  • Wing-like pectorals
  • Most live on sea beds
  • Some have poison spines on backs or tails (stingrays)
class osteichthyes
Class Osteichthyes
  • Largest group of fishes
  • Skeleton made of bone and cartilage
  • Hinged jaws
  • Paired fins
  • Hard, protective scales
  • Covered gills (operculum)
major groups of osteichthyes
Major Groups of Osteichthyes
  • Subclass Sarcopterygii
    • Lobe-finned fishes (Coelocanth)
    • Lungfishes
  • Subclass Actinopterygii –
    • Ray-finned fishes
      • Bass
      • Tuna
      • Guppies