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  1. Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed. Chapter 2: Popular Operating Systems

  2. Describe operating systems that laid the groundwork for current desktop and server operating systems Identify the basic features and characteristics of popular desktop and server operating systems Understand when to use certain operating systems Objectives Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed. 2

  3. An Introduction to Operating Systems An operating system (OS) is a set of basic programming instructions to computer hardware, forming a layer of programming code on which most other functions of the computer are built. The kernel is the programming code that is the core of the operating system. Code is a general term that refers to instructions written in a computer programming language. Computer hardware consists of physical devices such as the central processing unit (CPU), circuit boards, the monitor and keyboard, and disk drives. Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  4. Early Microsoft Operating Systems MS-DOS and PC DOS MS-DOS (DOS) was Microsoft’s original OS for the IBM PC PC DOS was MS-DOS customized and marketed by IBM – ran on early IBM computers Most programs operating under DOS used a simple text-based command-line interface. Both versions could only access up to 640 KB if memory Windows 3.x Microsoft released the first version of Windows using a graphical user interface (GUI) to compete with the Mac in 1984 This version ran slow and was not well accepted at first Windows 3.1 (early 1990s) was the first popular, usable Microsoft GUI and it paved the way for Windows to become the dominant PC OS Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  5. Windows 95 As the PC platform became more powerful and the Pentium architecture became more common, Microsoft created a true 32-bit OS that could use the functionality of the new 32-bit computer architecture Eliminated the 640 KB memory limit and the 16-bit code Introduced: The Windows desktop Plug and Play (PnP) ActiveX and the Component Object Model (COM) The Registry Multitasking Enhanced network and Internet connections Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  6. Windows 95 The Windows Desktop Windows 95 introduced the GUI (the desktop) which became the foundation for the GUI used in all later versions of Windows The Windows 95 GUI introduced the Start button that provides direct access to system utilities and application programs Other desktop features included: The taskbar at the bottom of the screen, which contains icons that represent currently running programs and other information about the operation of the system Shortcut and program icons to seamlessly run programs, manipulate files, and access network connections from one place Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  7. Windows 95 Plug and Play (PnP) Enables the OS to automatically detect newly installed hardware ActiveX and the Component Object Model (COM) ActiveX, along with its parent, Component Object Model (COM), is a standardized way for objects, such as programs, files, computers, printers, control panels, windows, and icons, to communicate with each other Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  8. Windows 95 Windows 95 introduced a new way of storing and managing OS information Up to this point, such information was kept in files in various locations on the hard disk. The new concept was called the registry, a database that stores: Operating information Information about hardware and software configuration General information that is shared by parts of the OS or application programs to make COM and ActiveX work, Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  9. Windows 95 The Registry provides the following: OS configuration Service and device driver information and configuration Software and application parameters Hardware configuration Performance information Desktop configuration Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  10. Windows 95 Multitasking Multitasking in Windows 95 was cooperative for 16-bit applications, but preemptive for 32-bit applications Windows 95 introduced a task supervisor that detects tasks that appear stuck, and that presents the option to close hung tasks without having to restart the system Enhanced Network and Internet Capabilities Networking functionality was extended from earlier Windows versions In Windows 95, the network drivers were part of the Windows OS In all but the early versions of Windows 95, all the networking code was written as a 32-bit application This resulted in a significant boost in network performance When Windows 95 was released, Microsoft did not support Internet connectivity but by 1997, Microsoft integrated Internet access through its Web browser, Internet Explorer, and the ability to share computer resources over the Internet into its OSs Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  11. Windows 98/Me Windows 98 and Windows Millennium Edition (Windows 98/Me) Was similar to Windows 95 They ran on similar computers and provided roughly the same capabilities Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  12. Windows 98 Windows 98 The Windows 98 user interface differed slightly from Windows 95, especially with the Web interface setting sintrinsic to Windows 98 Some of the changes from Windows 95 to Windows 98 included: Expanded PnP support Automatic registry checks and repairs Advanced power management features Support for new hardware standards such as USB Improved cooperative multitasking for 16-bit applications Greater integration of Internet and networking features Extended multimedia support Expanded support for high-speed networking Ability to perform upgrades over the Internet Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  13. Windows 98 Windows 98 Supported newer hardware standards, such as Universal Serial Bus (USB), a relatively high-speed input/output (I/O) port, and updated standards for multimedia, data storage and networking USB is a bus standard that enables you to attach all types of devices to one bus port on a computer. Up to 127 devices can be attached to one port It is not necessary to power off the computer when you attach a device USB was developed to replace the traditional serial and parallel bus technologies on computers Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  14. Windows 98/Me Windows Millennium Edition (Me) Developed for home computer users, not office or professional users Implemented applications that appealed to home users better than Windows 95 or 98 Playing music Storing family photos Playing games Accessing the Internet Provided better support for infrared devices Infrared Data Association (IrDA) support Implemented the enhanced PnP standard called Universal Plug and Play (UPnP) Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  15. Windows NT Windows New Technology (NT) A high-end operating system to be used on very powerful computers The idea was to make an OS that could be used on some very powerful computers The OS kernel ran in privileged mode which protected it from problems created by a malfunctioning program or process Privileged mode gives the OS an extra level of security from intruders, and prevents system crashes due to out-of-control applications Windows NT was offered in two versions: Windows NT Workstation The OS for those who need a high-end, stable, and secure graphical OS Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  16. Windows NT Windows NT Server Designed as a multi-user server OS for access over a network Networking Support Supported network connectivity protocols that are compatible with IBM mainframes, UNIX computers, Macintosh computers, all Windows-based computers and others Windows NT supported network connectivity supported high-speed network connectivity and remote access over telephone lines or Internet Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  17. Windows NT Security A significant feature of Windows NT The OS requires the user to log on and be authenticated by submitting a user name and password to gain access to the computer Windows NT 4.0 Server had a C2 top-secret security rating from the United States government The Windows NT Server network OS provided security at many levels, including: File and folder protection Uuser accounts and passwords File, folder, and account auditing File server access protection on a network Fie server management controls Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  18. Windows NT The domain is an integral part of the Windows NT security model In every domain, there is one Primary Domain Controller (PDC) The PDC computer is responsible for keeping all user-names and passwords for all users who may want to contact the domain Any other server that is part of the domain can request password and permission information from this PDC The PDC can also contain system policies, which provide general information on what certain users are and are not allowed to do on certain computers on the network, down to what function and features of the user interface should be enabled Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  19. Windows 2000 Windows 2000 Was built on the Windows NT technology with a significant rewrite of the Windows NT kernel and ran about 30% faster than Windows NT Included desktop features My Computer The ability to run programs from the Start button Like Windows NT, used preemptive multitasking, multithreading The kernel ran in provileged mode More advanced networking support than Windows NT Supported virtual private networks (VPN) A private network that is like a tunnel through a larger network, The Internet, an enterprise network, or both, that is restricted only to designated member clients With a VPN, you are able to access your network resources from anywhere with Internet access Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  20. Windows 2000 Windows 2000 Other new features include: Active Directory – A data base that is used to store information about resources such as user accounts, computers, and printers Groups resources at different levels (hierarchies) for local and universal management Provides a centralized means to quickly find a specific resource through indexing Managed by a Windows 2000 server Distributed Network Architecture – Windows 2000 offered new ways to distribute network and management resources to match the needs of most types of networks In Windows 2000 Server, multiple servers could be designated as domain controllers, each containing a copy of Active Directory and able to verify a user who wants to log on to the network Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  21. Windows 2000 Windows 2000 Kerberos security – Kerberos is a security system that enables two parties on an open network to communicate without interception by an intruder Kerberos works through a special communication protocol that enables a client to initiate contact with a server and request secure communications The server responds by providing and encryption key that is unique to that communication session by using a protected communication called a ticket Windows 2000 Server and Professional versions support Kerberos Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  22. Windows 2000 Windows 2000 IntelliMirror - A concept built into Windows 2000 It was intended to enable Windows 2000 clients to access the same desktop settings, applications, and data from wherever they access the network, or even if they are not on the network Uses information in Active Directory to ensure that consistent security and group policies apply to the client, and that the client’s software is upgraded or removed on the basis of a central management scheme International Language Compatibility – Windows 2000 supported more languages and language capabilities than previous versions of Windows, including Hindi, Chinese and multiple versions of English Very important because servers are used all over the world Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  23. Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional Microsoft offered versions of Windows 2000 designed for server and workstation implementations The basic server version is called Windows 2000 Server, and Windows 2000 Professional was designed for workstations The overall goal was to combine Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional on a server-based network to achieve a lower total cost of ownership (TCO) The TCO is the total cost of owning a network, including hardware, software, training, maintenance, and user support costs Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  24. Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional Windows 2000 Professional Designed to work equally well on a desktop computer or a notebook computer By combining Windows 2000 Professional workstations and windows 2000 Server on the same network, along with Active Directory, it was possible to centralize software updates and workstation configuration via a server Windows 2000 Server supports up to 4 processors while Windows 2000 Professional supports up to two Windows 2000 Server also offered more services and user connectivity options that are appropriate for a server instead of a workstation. Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  25. Windows 2000 Server and Windows 2000 Professional These services included: Handle unlimited numbers of users simultaneously Active Directory management Network management Web-based management services Network-wide security management Remote network access, network-wide communications services, and high-speed network connectivity Application services and network printer management through Active Directory Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  26. Windows 2000 Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server Windows 2000 Server was divided into three different products to match the network application: Windows 2000 Server: Provided a comprehensive set of server and Web services for up to 4 processor systems Supported up to 4 GB of RAM Windows 2000 Advanced Server: Intended for high-end enterprise networks that require up to 8 processor servers, clustered serves, or both Clustering –a technique in which two or more servers are linked to equally share the server processor load, server storage, and other server resources Has the ability to handle up to 8 GB of RAM Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  27. Windows 2000 Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server Windows 2000 Datacenter Server: Targeted for large database and data manipulation services Supports 64 GB of RAM, clustering, and servers with up to 32 processors Microsoft discontinued support for all versions of Windows 2000 Server in 2010 Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  28. Windows 2000 Server, Advanced Server, and Datacenter Server Server clustering Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  29. Current Desktop and Server Operating Systems The rest of this chapter will focus on current operating systems such as: Windows XP Windows Server 2003/R2 Windows Vista Windows Server 2008/R2 Windows 7 UNIX System V Release 4 Mac OS Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  30. Windows XP Windows 2000 evolved into two products, both containing the core elements of the Windows 2000 kernel: Windows XP (Windows Experience) – the new desktop version of the OSE Windows Server 2003 – the server version Both versions offer: A new desktop GUI The Windows XP and Windows Server 2003 desktop removes the clutter of icons by incorporating more functions into the Start menu More capabilities for keeping photo albums, playing music, running video and audio files, playing games, and using other multimedia applications Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  31. Windows XP Better Internet security through a built-in firewall The ability to remotely control the computer over an Internet connection (Remote Desktop) Designed to be secure so that the computer being controlled must first grant access Must be activated after installation by contacting Microsoft for an activation code The activation code is linked to a particular computer on which the OS resides If the OS is moved to another computer, it is necessary to contact Microsoft to obtain a new activation code for that computer The activation code, along with the key code, is entered during installation to help ensure that the software is not pirated Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  32. Windows XP Windows XP comes in several versions: Windows XP Home Windows XP Professional Windows XP Tablet PC Windows XP Media Center Windows XP 64-bit Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  33. Windows XP Windows XP Professional The upgrade to Windows 2000 Professional Intended for office use and professional use Has the ability to create accounts for different users who might use the OS Can be used as a small server for up to 10 users Can run on computers using up to 2 processors and on 64-bit Itanium computers Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  34. Windows XP Windows XP Home Meant as the next upgrade from Windows Me Is a scaled down version of Windows XP Professional User accounts cannot be created in Windows XP Home Edition Cannot support 10 simultaneous users Runs only on 32-bit single-processor computers Both XP versions The Control Panel is used to customize all types of settings in Windows Display settings Mouse settings System settings Power management Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  35. Windows XP Both XP versions Improved help and support documentation Includes articles to help you become familiar with the new Windows XP desktop Program Compatibility Wizard Programs written for Windows 95 and earlier OSs may not run kin Windows XP without using its Program Compatibility Wizard In the Program Compatibility Wizard: You first select the program that you want to run Select the OS that the program is designed to run under Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  36. Windows XP Windows XP Tablet PC Edition An OS for tablet PCs Small hand-sized portable computers that use speech and pen capabilities and offer wireless communications A superset of Windows XP Professional All of the Windows XP compatible application software will run on the Table PC Edition Additional features used for pen-based computing include: Customization – Allows you to set up your Tablet PC for left- or right-handed use Calibrate the pen Program the buttons for a specific task Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  37. Windows XP Additional features used for pen-based computing include: Tablet PC Input Panel Allows user to write notes from a class or meeting on the screen and then save these notes in either their own handwriting or change them into text and then save them Microsoft Windows Journal A note-taking utility that lets you capture the notes, drawings, doodles, etc., one would normally write on paper You can then organize these notes and even search them to find a reference you are looking for in the handwritten document Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  38. Windows XP • Windows XP Media Center Edition • A superset of Windows XP Professional • Allows the user to control all digital media with a single remote control • DVD movies, photos, music, videos, radio, and live television • Enhancements included with XP Media Center are: • Set-top box Learning Mode – Configure the system to work with your set-top box • Build and play your digital music library – copy music from CDs to your PC hard drive • View and share your digital pictures • Internet and FM radio – skip forward, pause, and replay • Display Calibration Wizard – setup the best picture on monitors, flat panels, plasma displays, and standard cathode-ray tubes (CRTs). Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  39. Windows XP Windows XP 64-Bit Edition Runs on the Intel Itanium and AMD x64 processors Targeted for users who need large amounts of memory and superior mathematical calculation capabilities Microsoft ended the sale of Windows XP in October 2010, but will provide support until April 2014 Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  40. Windows Server 2003 • Windows Server 2003 • Comes in four versions, similar to the versions that are available for Windows 2000 Server: • Standard Edition • Enterprise Edition • Datacenter Edition • Web Edition • An upgrade from Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 contains new features that include: • The GUI interface used with Windows XP • Improvements for faster network logon authentication through Active Directory • New tools for managing server resources • Ability to run on 64-bit Itanium processors Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  41. Windows Server 2003 • Windows Server 2003 • An upgrade from Windows 2000, Windows Server 2003 contains new features that include: • Remote server management through the Remote Desktop tool • Enhanced ability for users to run programs on the server, through Microsoft Terminal Services • Runtime code for the new Windows .NET development environment to run applications through the Internet on all types of devices Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  42. Windows Server 2003 Offers the following new features: Windows Rights Management Services (RMS) – allows companies to secure their documents from copying, forwarding, and printing Microsoft Office 2003 works hand-in-hand with Windows Server 2003 to accomplish this Common language runtime (CLR) – verifies code before it is run and monitors memory to clean up any leakage before it becomes a problem Configure Your Server Wizard – allows the server to be configured to defined roles, such as file server, printer server, application server, and mail server Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  43. Windows Server 2003 R2 Windows Server 2003 Release 2 (R2) is an upgrade to Windows Server 2003 with many new features that have been incorporated into Windows Server 2008 Targeted for medium- to large-sized organizations who wish to have more reliable, heavy-duty, and uninterrupted computing Desktop looks the same as Windows Server 2003 Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  44. Windows Server 2003 R2New Features Better performance If a company has branch offices that are connected by wide area networks )WANs), Active Directory is able to communicate faster over the WAN links This enables users to log on faster to branch office servers and it allows branch office servers to devote more CPU resources to handling user requests Performance enhancements have been made to SharePoint Services This enable users to collaborate on Word documents Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  45. Windows Server 2003 R2New Features Improved Group Policy Management The group policy capabilities of Windows Server 2003 R2 enable organizations to manage how users employ Windows-based computers An organization can standardize how applications are access by users Through group policy implementation, both employee productivity and network security can be increased Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  46. Windows Server 2003 R2New Features Microsoft Management Console 3.0 (MMC 3.0) and the Print Management Console MMC 3.0 enables a network administrator to manage server functions across an enterprise of Windows servers The goal is to reduce the number of on-site (or third party) server managers in different geographical locations that house servers Important to businesses that have branch offices and to universities in which servers are spread throughout departments or colleges Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  47. Windows Server 2003 R2New Features Print Management Console – for enterprise-wide control of network printers for one location. Installation of network printers remotely from the computer running Print Management Console Provides the ability to install and set up a printer in a branch (off-site) office Instantaneous views of printers that are not ready and of print jobs so you can manage printer resources and troubleshoot problems Ability to view printer driver information, forms, printer port use, and other general printer information Ability to setup Web features to remotely diagnose a problem (jammed printer / empty toner cartridge) Option to create customized printer filters such as to constantly monitor one or more printers subject to intermittent errors Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  48. Windows Server 2003 R2New Features Server Clustering Capabilities Available on the Enterprise and Datacenter Editions The ability to cluster 2 or more servers to appear to work as one large server The company immediately has more CPU power If one server fails, its functions are picked up by the remaining servers so operations can continue Failover services extend to computers that are geographically separated Includes easier setup for clustered servers and easier removal of one or more servers from a cluster Enterprise Edition allows up to 8 computers to be clustered Better integrated with Active Directory and with the servers’ disks A disk on a clustered server can be expanded without removing a computer from a cluster Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  49. Windows Server 2003 R2New Features Virtual Server Options Enables you to run more than one operating system on your server You want to have both a live environment and one for testing – but don’t have the resources to purchase two computers You can load two licensed versions of Windows Server 2003 R2 to accomplish both on the same computer Requires a computer that has two or more processors (one for each OS you load) Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.

  50. Windows Server 2003 R2New Features Dynamic Systems Initiative A joint venture with Hewlett-Packard, Dell, IBM, Fujitsu Limited, and Fujitsu Siemens to make computers simpler to use and more self-managing Implement DSI technology through enhancements to Microsoft Operations Manager (MOM) 2005 An application to help manage server operations in an organization, including monitoring servers, reporting on events, and providing alerts about problems Microsoft reports that the two combined environments can result in using 40% fewer people to manage servers Guide to Operating Systems, 4th ed.