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Guide to Operating Systems Third Edition Configuring Input and Output Devices Guide to Operating Systems Third Edition Objectives After reading this chapter and completing the exercises you will be able to: Understand how operating systems interface with input and output devices

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configuring input and output devices

Configuring Input and Output Devices

Guide to Operating Systems

Third Edition

objectives
Objectives

After reading this chapter and completing the exercises you will be able to:

  • Understand how operating systems interface with input and output devices
  • Explain the need for device drivers and install devices and drivers
  • Describe popular input device technologies

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

objectives continued
Objectives (continued)
  • Discuss the types of printers and install printers
  • Explain display adapter technologies
  • Install circuit boards for new devices
  • Explain the use of sound cards and other output devices

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

operating systems and devices an overview
Operating Systems and Devices: An Overview
  • The operating system must:
    • Handle input from the keyboard, mouse, and other input devices
    • Handle output to the screen, printer, and other output devices
    • Control information storage and retrieval
    • Support communications with remote computers

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

operating systems and devices an overview continued
Operating Systems and Devices: An Overview (continued)
  • OS accomplishes these tasks:
    • through software
    • through hardware
  • Three general steps:
    • Install any software drivers that are required
    • Install the input or output device
    • Set up the hardware

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

using device drivers
Using Device Drivers
  • OS provides basic input/output support for the parallel, serial, bus, or other ports
  • Specific features of individual devices are provided by device drivers

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

using device drivers continued
Using Device Drivers (continued)
  • If you download a new driver you’ll probably need PKZIP or WINZIP
  • PC-executable files use the .exe file extension
    • downloaded drivers that include this extension, are a self-extracting file

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

using device drivers continued9
Using Device Drivers (continued)
  • Macintosh users
    • can use ZIP-format archives
    • more common format is StuffIt
  • UNIX system users
    • retrieve drivers in a tar format
    • StuffIt is also available for some UNIX systems

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

manufacturer driver installation
Manufacturer Driver Installation
  • Hardware manufacturer’s install utility
    • usually fully automatic
    • well documented

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

windows 2000 xp server 2003 device and driver installation
Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003 Device and Driver Installation
  • Several installation methods
    • PnP capability
    • Add/Remove Hardware Wizard or Add Hardware Wizard
    • Specialized icon on Control Panel
    • Device Manager

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

windows 2000 xp server 2003 device and driver installation continued
Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003 Device and Driver Installation (continued)
  • PnP method
    • Shut down the OS
    • Turn off the power
    • Connect the device
    • Plug the device into power
    • Turn on the computer
    • OS automatically installs the drivers

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

windows 2000 xp server 2003 device and driver installation continued13
Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003 Device and Driver Installation (continued)
  • Add/Remove Hardware or Add Hardware Wizards
    • Windows 2000 uses Add/Remove Hardware Wizard
    • Windows XP/Server 2003 uses Add hardware Wizard

Control Panel method

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

windows 2000 xp server 2003 device and driver installation continued14
Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003 Device and Driver Installation (continued)
  • Device Manager method:
    • Convenient method
    • Determine location of device driver files
    • Check to make sure a device is working
    • Determine if there is a resource conflict

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

windows 2000 xp server 2003 device and driver installation continued15
Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003 Device and Driver Installation (continued)
  • Interrupt request (IRQ):
    • communication channel
    • communicates with the CPU
  • I/O address range
    • memory reserved for a particular device
    • Device manager shows IRQ lines and any conflicts

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

windows 2000 xp server 2003 device and driver installation continued16
Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003 Device and Driver Installation (continued)
  • Driver signing:
    • unique digital signature
    • ensures that the driver works properly
    • security feature to ensure that there has been no tampering

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

unix linux driver installation
UNIX/Linux Driver Installation
  • Concept of drivers in UNIX
    • different from other operating systems
    • the kernel is where most device drivers are loaded
  • Device special files
    • Blocked special files
    • Character special files
    • Named pipes

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

unix linux driver installation continued
UNIX/Linux Driver Installation (continued)

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

managing devices in netware 6 x
Managing Devices in NetWare 6.x
  • NetWare Loadable Modules
    • extend capabilities and services of OS
    • hundreds of different modules
    • from web server to establishing security
    • automatically loaded at boot time

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

managing devices in netware 6 x continued
Managing Devices in NetWare 6.x (continued)

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

mac os x driver installation
Mac OS X Driver Installation
  • Mac OS X systems include drivers for most hardware
  • General steps for new hardware installs:
    • Shut down OS and turn off computer
    • Attach the new hardware
    • Restart the computer and OS
    • Insert CD-ROM
    • Run the installer program

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

standard input devices
Standard Input Devices
  • Standard and universal input devices:
    • keyboard
    • mouse

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

mouse and keyboard drivers
Mouse and Keyboard Drivers
  • Highly standardized across operating systems
  • The mouse and keyboard use special ports
    • serial or USB ports
  • Windows XP includes a sophisticated keyboard driver

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

mouse and keyboard drivers continued
Mouse and Keyboard Drivers (continued)
  • Mouse
    • pointing device with a ball
    • rotates as you move the mouse
    • mouse pad
    • one, two, or three buttons on top
    • moves two potentiometers (variable resistors) positioned at 90-degree angles to each other
    • top-mounted buttons are connected to micro-switches

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

other input devices
Other Input Devices
  • Specialty input devices for:
    • graphics design
    • Web page development
    • digital photography
    • movie or sound editing

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

digital tablets
Digital Tablets
  • Digital pad or tablet
    • a different kind of mouse
    • to draw pictures
    • sign your name
    • color a detailed graphic image
    • conduct other tasks that require a high degree of manual dexterity

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

digital tablets continued
Digital Tablets (continued)
  • Personal digital assistants (PDAs)
    • same technology used in digital tablets
  • Digital pad
    • plugs into your computer
    • fairly standard hardware to specialty devices

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

scanners
Scanners
  • Scanner
    • like a printer in reverse
    • an office photocopier that “prints” to your computer
  • Optical character recognition (OCR)
    • scans each character

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

scanners continued
Scanners (continued)
  • Small Computer System Interface (SCSI) hardware or the USB port
    • fast because they use wide data paths
    • rely less on the main system CPU

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

joysticks and game pads
Joysticks and Game Pads
  • Joysticks and game pads
    • alternative input devices
  • Joystick
    • more like a mouse than a digital pad
    • offers a lot more control
    • used for three-dimensional movement on screen

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

joysticks and game pads continued
Joysticks and Game Pads (continued)
  • Game pads
    • come in a wide variety of designs
    • designed for interaction with games
    • include multiple buttons, wheels, or balls

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

digital sound input
Digital Sound Input
  • Almost every workstation comes with some kind of analog sound card
  • Add a digital I/O card for:
    • editing music
    • voice for electronic journalism
    • audio for training applications

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

digital sound input continued
Digital Sound Input (continued)
  • Digital audio interfaces plug into the computer’s internal bus
    • PCI
    • USB port

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

digital picture and video input output
Digital Picture and Video Input/Output
  • Works similarly to digital audio I/O
  • Need a digital I/O interface and drivers
  • Import digital images into application software

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

1394 technology
1394 Technology
  • IEEE 1394
    • specification for a high-speed digital interface
    • supports data communication at 100, 200, or 400 megabits per second
  • IEEE 1394b
    • communicates at 800 Mbps, 1.6 Gbps, and 3.2 Gbps

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

1394 technology continued
1394 Technology (continued)
  • Technology targeted at
    • multimedia peripherals
    • digital camcorders
    • music systems
    • digital TVs
    • digital video discs (DVDs)

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

printers
Printers
  • Important part of nearly every computer installation today

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

printer types
Printer Types
  • The following types of printers are the most popular today:
    • Dot matrix printers
    • Ink-jet printers
    • Laser printers

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

printer types continued
Printer Types (continued)
  • Printer designs used in specialized arenas:
    • Line printers
    • Thermal-wax transfer printers
    • Dye sublimation printers
    • Imagesetter printers

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

printer types continued40
Printer Types (continued)
  • Plotter
    • popular in engineering architecture
    • where hard copy output (such as blueprints) won’t fit on standard paper sizes
    • using pen and control mechanisms

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

printer connections
Printer Connections
  • Serial port
    • connection used initially
  • Parallel port
    • most common printer connection
    • manages communications
    • sometimes called a Centronics interface
    • 25-pin (DB-25) connector

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

printer connections continued
Printer Connections (continued)
  • Universal Serial Bus (USB)
    • very popular in today’s printer market
    • all printers ship with a USB port
  • Older Apple PCs use the Apple Desktop Bus (ADB)
  • Extended Capabilities Port (ECP)
    • higher speed bidirectional communication

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

installing printers
Installing Printers
  • Operating systems provide one or more ways to install
  • Printing is vital to outputting documents in:
    • word processors
    • spreadsheets
    • graphics programs

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

installing printers continued
Installing Printers (continued)
  • Windows 2000/XP/Server 2003:
    • use PnP
    • Add/Remove Hardware Wizard – Windows 2000
    • Add Hardware Wizard – Windows XP/Server 2003
    • Add Printer Wizard from Control Panel

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

installing printers continued45
Installing Printers (continued)
  • UNIX/Linux
    • uses a print queue and print spooler
    • first define the printer and queue
    • use printtool in Red Hat Enterprise Linux

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

installing printers continued46
Installing Printers (continued)
  • NetWare
    • complex process
    • use separate utilities
    • modern way – use Novell Distributed Print Services – see Chapter 9

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

installing printers continued47
Installing Printers (continued)
  • Mac OS X
    • most print drivers are already installed
    • use Printer Setup Utility

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

display adapters
Display Adapters
  • AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port)
    • industry wide acceptance
    • enables high-performance graphics capabilities

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

basic display adapter technology
Basic Display Adapter Technology
  • Basic display
    • consists of 640 pixels horizontally and 480 pixels vertically
  • Pixel
    • picture element
    • small dot of light

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

basic display adapter technology continued
Basic Display Adapter Technology (continued)
  • Top-end display adapters
    • 1280 X 1024 pixels
    • 1600 X 1280
    • 2048 X 1536
  • Resolution of 640 X 480
    • images are displayed with 640 dots of light from left to right and 480 dots of light top to bottom

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

basic display adapter technology continued51
Basic Display Adapter Technology (continued)
  • Bit depth
    • dots of light in an inch of display
    • all displays have a bit depth of 72 dots per inch (dpi
  • 640 X 480 is the basic Video Graphics Array (VGA) resolution
  • New PCs ship with 800 X 600 or greater

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

installing display adapters
Installing Display Adapters
  • Reasons for upgrading a display adapter:
    • technology changes
    • software changes
    • personal needs change
  • Installing a display adapter bus card is similar to installing circuit boards

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

sound cards
Sound Cards
  • Two general types:
    • bus cards
    • hardware integrated with the motherboard
  • Most sound cards are now built into the motherboard

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

other output devices
Other Output Devices
  • Digital video
    • popular consumer and professional computer-based feature
    • adapter cards that let you capture and output digital video to a camera or VCR are available
  • Enhanced sound output is reasonably priced
  • Digital audio stream to minidisk or DAT (Digital Audio Tape) recorders is available

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

installing circuit boards
Installing Circuit Boards
  • To avoid damage, use these guidelines:
    • Leave the card inside its protective cover
    • Disconnect all power to the computer
    • Prepare the computer
    • Position the card inside its cover, near the computer

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

installing circuit boards continued
Installing Circuit Boards (continued)
  • To avoid damage, use these guidelines (continued):
    • Touch a grounded part of the computer
    • Insert the card carefully
    • Press it firmly into place

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

summary
Summary
  • How an OS handles input and output device communications
  • Most up-to-date drivers from manufacturer
  • Installation procedures and configuration wizards
  • Installation on Windows, UNIX/Linux, Mac and NetWare PCs.
  • Learned about standard input devices

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition

summary continued
Summary (continued)
  • Installation of printer was discussed
  • Reviewed the common types of printers
  • Most operating systems have tools for installing printers
  • Discussed other common output devices

Guide to operating Systems, Third Edition