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W IND –2– H 2 O MECH 4020 : Design II Group 12: Jeffrey Allen Daniel Barker Andrew Hildebrand Tom McDonald Supervised by: Dr. Alex Kalamkarov Client: Dr. Graham Gagnon.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

WIND –2– H2O

MECH 4020: Design II

Group 12: Jeffrey Allen

Daniel Barker

Andrew Hildebrand

Tom McDonald

Supervised by: Dr. Alex Kalamkarov

Client: Dr. Graham Gagnon

slide2

Presentation Agenda

  • Background
  • Design Overview
  • Design Modifications
  • Testing
  • Budget
  • Design Requirements

2

slide3

Design Competition

Project inspired by theme of 2008 Design Competition

posed by WERC: A Consortium for Environmental

Education and Technology Development

Competition held at New Mexico State University

April 5th – 8th

Competition Design Challenge

Design a device that uses wind power

to directly power the filtration of

brackish water

i.e. no generation of electricity

slide4

Interdisciplinary Collaboration

Working with a team of two Civil

Engineering students: Matt Follett

Dannica Switzer

Responsible for water treatment system

slide9

Design Overview - Blades

  • Clockwise rotation
  • Blade tip deflection
  • Light weight (Al 5052-H32)
  • Safety factor of at least 10 for centrifugal forces
  • Optimize performance for low winds (3-6 m/s)
  • Solidity ratio of 80%
  • 10 degree averaged angle of attack
slide13

Design Overview - Gearbox

  • 1” diameter shafts
  • 1010 steel for rotor shaft, 4140 steel for geared shafts
  • Maintain a safety factor of at least 5 (keyways, variable loads)
  • Stress analysis - torsion, bending, buckling,
  • Vibration – critical speed
  • Deflection – spacing between bearings
slide14

Design Overview - Gearbox

  • System meets or exceeds ANSI B29-1 - Precision Power Transmission Roller Chains, Attachments, and Sprockets
slide15

Design Overview – Crank Mechanism

  • 3 inch stroke length
  • Brass bushings used to allow for relative motion between shaft and crank arm
  • Cotter pins prevent crank arms from slipping off ends
slide16

Design Overview – Pump Block

  • Crank arm drives pump block up and down
  • No relative motion between vertical shafts and pump block due to split pin (better for seal)
  • Two ½” shafts constrain lateral motion through two brass sleeve bearings
slide17

Design Overview – Yaw Bearing

  • Lazy susan bearing rated for 1000 lbs. used to yaw the nacelle
slide18

Design Overview – Pump

  • Brass pipe with two check valves
  • Leather seals provide seal between valves and pump wall
slide19

Design Overview – Stand

  • Stand inherited from Vertical Axis Wind Turbine 2005/2006
slide20

Design Overview – Overspeed Protection

  • Furling at 11 m/s
  • Thrust force on blades
  • Force on Tail
  • Offset angles
slide22

Design Iteration – Flange Thrust Bearing

  • THRUST BEARING
  • Added to stop pump rod from unthreading itself during yaw motion
  • Transmits tension and compression along pump rod, while providing zero torque
  • Consists of a rigid flanged housing welded to the upper pump rod with two sets of tapered roller bearings press fit into it
  • Lower pump rod locates onto roller bearings via a welded collar and tensioning nut
slide23

Design Iteration – Brass Pressure Seal Cap

  • Design Considerations
  • SEAL CAP
  • Added to provide a pressure seal at interface of pump rod and pump
  • Consists of a brass cap with pipe threading that has seated in it a rubber wiper to prevent dirt from entering the pump, and a rubber seal
slide24

Design Iteration – Stainless Steal Pump Rod

  • Design Considerations
  • STAINLESS STEEL PUMP ROD
  • Originally made of steel, which was rusting
  • Replaced with a stainless steel pump rod to resist corrosion
testing
Testing
  • Test #1: Point Pleasant Park
    • Unstable back pressure (butterfly valve)
    • Wind speed ~4 m/s
    • Proof of concept test
    • No data recorded
testing1
Testing
  • Test #2: Dalhousie Wind Tunnel Lab
    • Air flow: 42” box fan
    • Wind speed ~4.5 m/s
    • Filters couldn’t handle high flow rate
    • Unstable back pressure (butterfly valve)
    • Civil students were able to reduce particulate in sample from >6000 ppm to <150ppm

97.5% particulate removed!

testing3
Testing
  • Test #3: Lawrencetown Beach
    • Wind speed ~ 5.5 m/s gusting to 9 m/s
    • 75 psi pressure relief valve generates back pressure
    • Wind speed taken every 5 seconds
    • Volume water taken every minute
    • Wind speed nearly constant over rotor face
results
Results
  • Average back pressure taken as 80 psi
  • Able to determine efficiency based on theoretical kinetic energy of wind flux
testing4
Testing
  • Optimum efficiency occurred near 4.7 m/s
testing5
Testing
  • RPM optimized (steepest slope) around 5.3 m/s
  • RPM is concave down above 5.3 m/s
testing6
Testing
  • Turbine performed better than anticipated
  • Flow rates approximately 50% higher than expected
testing7
Testing
  • Test #4: Wind Tunnel Lab
    • Three wind speeds (low, medium, high)
    • 30 psi relief valve added
    • Flow rates recorded at 0, 35, and 75 psi
    • Volume water taken every two minutes
    • Air flow highly complex, uneven over rotor face
    • Analogous wind speed undeterminable
testing8
Testing
  • Curve becomes more linear as wind speed increases
  • Demonstrates higher flow rates at higher wind speeds
slide48

Acknowledgements

  • Dr. Joshua Leon
  • Dr. Graham Gagnon
  • Dr. Alexander Kalamkarov
  • Dr. Julio Militzer