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Hallucinogens (Psychedelics). Hallucinogens. substances that alter sensory processing in the brain, causing perceptual disturbances, changes in thought processing, and depersonalization. Modern day history of hallucinogens. The Native American Church

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substances that alter sensory processing in the brain, causing perceptual disturbances, changes in thought processing, and depersonalization

modern day history of hallucinogens
Modern day history of hallucinogens
  • The Native American Church
    • The American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978
  • Timothy Leary and the League of Spiritual Discovery
    • The Psychedelic Experience
the nature of hallucinogens
The nature of hallucinogens
  • Many drugs can exert hallucinogenic effects
    • LSD types
    • Phenylethylamines
    • Anticholinergic agents
nature of hallucinogens
Nature of hallucinogens




sensory and psychological effects of hallucinogens
Sensory and psychological effects of hallucinogens
  • Altered senses
    • synesthesia
  • Loss of control
    • flashbacks
  • Self-reflection
    • “make conscious the unconscious”
  • Loss of identity and cosmic merging
    • “mystical-spiritual aspect of the drug experience”
traditional hallucinogens lsd types agents
Traditional hallucinogens: LSD types agents
  • LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide), mescaline, psilocybin, dimethyltryptamine (DMT), and myristicin
  • These drugs cause predominantly psychedelic effects
of high school seniors sampled

Of high school seniors sampled:

11.3% had used in 1975

8.6% has used in 1992

12.2% had used in 1999

traditional hallucinogens lsd types agents1
Traditional hallucinogens: LSD types agents
  • Physical properties of LSD
    • In pure form - colorless, odorless, tasteless
    • Street names - acid, blotter acid, microdot, white lightning
traditional hallucinogens
Traditional Hallucinogens
  • Physiological effects
    • Massive increase in neural activity
    • Activates sympathetic nervous system (rise in body temp., heart rate, and blood pressure)
    • Parasympathetic nervous system (increase in salivation and nausea)
traditional hallucinogens lsd types agents2
Traditional hallucinogens: LSD types agents
  • About half of the substance is cleared from the body within 3 hours, and more than 90% is excreted within 24 hours
  • Effects of this hallucinogen can last 2-12 hours
  • Tolerance to the effects of LSD develops very quickly
other lsd types agents
Other LSD types agents
  • Mescaline (Peyote)
    • Mescaline is the most active drug in peyote; it induces intensified perception of colors and euphoria
    • Effects include dilation of the pupils, increase in body temperature, anxiety, visual hallucinations, and alteration of body image, vomiting, muscular relaxation; in very high doses may cause death
    • Street samples are rarely authentic
other lsd types agents1
Other LSD types agents
  • Psilocybin - its principal source is the Psilocybe mexicana mushroom
    • It is not very common of the street
    • Hallucinogenic effects produced are quite similar to LSD
    • Cross tolerance among psilocybin, LSD, mescaline
    • Stimulates the autonomic nervous system, dilates the pupils, increases the body temperature
other lsd types agents2
Other LSD types agents
  • Dimethyltryptamine (DMT)
    • A short-acting hallucinogen
    • Found in seeds of certain leguminous trees and prepared synthetically
    • It is inhaled and similar action as psilocybin
other hallucinogenic lsd type
Other Hallucinogenic (LSD type)
  • Nutmeg
    • Myristica oil responsible for physical effects
    • High doses can be quite intoxicating
    • Can also cause unpleasant trips
phenylethylamine hallucinogens
Phenylethylamine hallucinogens
  • The phenylethylamine drugs are chemically related to amphetamines.
  • They have varying degrees of hallucinogenic and CNS stimulant effects
  • Phenylethylamines that predominantly:
    • Release serotonin are dominated by their hallucinogenic action
    • Release dopamine are dominated by their stimulant effects
phenylethylamine hallucinogens1
Phenylethylamine hallucinogens
  • Dimthoxymethylamphetamine (DOM or STP)
  • “Designer” amphetamines
  • 3,4-Methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA)
  • Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
anticholinergic hallucinogens
Anticholinergic hallucinogens
  • The anticholinergic hallucinogens include naturally occurring alkaloid substances that are present in plants and herbs
  • The potato family of plants contains most of these mind-altering drugs
  • 3 potent anticholingergic compounds
    • Scopolamine
    • Hyoscyamine
    • Atropine
anticholinergic hallucinogens1
Anticholinergic hallucinogens
  • Atropa Belladonna: The Deadly Nightshade
  • Mandragora Officinarum: The Mandrake
  • Hyoscyamus Niger: Henbane
  • Datura Stramonium: Jimsonweed
other hallucinogens
Other hallucinogens
  • Phencyclidine (PCP)
    • It was developed as an intravenous anesthetic, but found to have serious adverse side effects
    • It differs from the other traditional hallucinogens
      • It is a general anesthetic in high doses
      • It causes incredible strength and extreme violent behavior
      • Management of the severe psychological reactions requires drug therapy
other hallucinogens1
Other hallucinogens
  • Phencyclidine (PCP) physiological effects
    • Hallucinogenic effects, stimulation, depression, anesthesia, analgesia
    • Large doses can cause coma, convulsions, and death
  • PCP psychological effects
    • Feelings of strength, power, invulnerability; perceptual distortions, paranoia, violence, psychoses,
other hallucinogens inhalants
Other hallucinogens: inhalants
  • The most commonly abused inhalants are volatile substances that can cause hallucinations, intoxication, and euphoria.
    • Volatile solvents
    • Anesthetics
    • Nitrites
  • Mild doses - mild stimulations, lack of motor control, dizziness, hallucinations
  • High doses - violent behavior, heart arrhythmia, unconsciousness, death22
from the forest to the front lawn
From the forest to the front lawn?
  • This lecture reviews basic information on most of the hallucinogen and dissociative intoxicants growing throughout the U.S.
  • Psychoactive composition, geographic distribution, and brief overview on preparation and/or intoxication will be reviewed
the ephedra equation
The Ephedra Equation
  • Most “dietary supplements” marketed as psychoactive intoxicants contain ephedrine and/or caffeine from a variety of botanical sources.
  • In China, Ma Huang is used directly as a tea or compounded with other herbs.
  • Historically in the U.S., it was used as a stimulant tea: Mormon Tea, Brigham Tea, and other names.
  • Contains: ephedrine, pseudo-ephedrine, nor-ephedrine, methyl-ephedrine, tannins, saponin, and flavone
ephedra of the us e trifurca e viridis e torreyana e nevadensis and e californica
Ephedra of the USE. trifurca, E. viridis, E. torreyana,E. nevadensis and E. californica
  • 100 gm dried ephedra could contain anywhere from 0 to 2.6 gm of ephedrine
  • Herbalists do offer pure extract preparations
psilocybe mushrooms potent hallucinogen
Psilocybe Mushrooms: Potent Hallucinogen
  • Psilocybin: 4-phosphoryloxy-N,N-DMT
  • Psilocin: 4-hydroxy-N,N-DMT
  • Psilocybe cubensis typically contains 1.6 mg psilocybin per gram of dried mushroom
  • 40 mcg/kg intoxicates
  • 3 to 4 hour duration
psilocybe mushrooms
Psilocybe Mushrooms
  • Small brown mushrooms that stain blue to the touch
  • Illicit cultivation but also foraged from temperate climates
psilocybe mushrooms religious use
Psilocybe Mushrooms:Religious Use

Religious use continues in Oaxaca, Mexico

dimethyltryptamine potent hallucinogen dmt
Dimethyltryptamine – Potent Hallucinogen (DMT)
  • N,N-Dimethyltryptamine
  • 10 to 20 mg smoked : 15 minute intoxication
  • Approximately 100mg oral ingestion in presence of an MAOI: 3-4 hour intoxication
  • Many sources
  • Religious use of ayahuasca continues in Brazil; indigenous and “modern” religions: Santo Daime and Uniao do Vegetal. Both seek permission to use in the U.S.
dmt it s as common as crabgrass
DMT…it’s as common as crabgrass…
  • “Canary” grass; Phalaris aquatica, P. arundinacea, P. canariensis, P. tuberosa
  • Desmanthus illinoensis; Prairie Bundleflower
  • Many other sources; mostly S. America.
dmt content
DMT content
  • Alkaloids reported as mg/100g raw dried plant +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
  • P. tuberosa: DMT 100 mg+; 5-Me-DMT 22 mg+; 5-OH-DMT 5 mg
  • P. arundinacea DMT 60+ mg
  • Desmanthus illinoesis (root bark) DMT 340 mg
  • Psychotria viridis: DMT 200 mg
monoamine oxidase inhibitors
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors

Sedative-hypnotic properties and possibly hallucinogenic/dissociative properties

Sources: Peganum harmala, Passiflora spp.,


peganum harmala1
Peganum harmala
  • Commonly called Syrian rue
  • Contains reversible MAOIs that may also be psychoactive (2 to 4% beta-carboline content).
  • Ayahuasca’s MAOI source only has 0.5% beta-carboline content.
  • Passiflora: approx. 1%
passiflora incarnata
Passiflora incarnata
  • Passion flower; fruit used in drinks; some herbal preparations as a “sedative”
peyote potent hallucinogen
Peyote – Potent Hallucinogen

Lophophoria williamsii

Contains mescaline

  • Lophophoria williamsii contains 1.5% mescaline (b-3,4,5-trimethoxyphenethylamine)
  • 3mg/kg potent intoxication
  • Up to 8 to 10 hour duration
  • Continued religious use in North America
  • Other cacti used in South America and also…
trichocereus spp
  • Most popular source of non-sacramental mescaline in the U.S. isn’t peyote…
  • These ornamental cacti can be found almost everywhere
the peyote ceremony
The Peyote Ceremony

Stewart OC. Peyote Religion. Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1987.

Aberle DF. The Peyote Religion Among the Navaho. Chicago, IL: Aldine Publishing Co., 1966.

the peyote ceremony1
The Peyote Ceremony
  • Reasons for a meeting
  • The Road Chief and…
  • Tobacco prayers
  • Ingestion of Peyote
  • Power of song
  • Water ceremony
  • The morning after
lysergic acid amide
Lysergic Acid Amide

Ipomoea spp. (esp. I. purpurea)

Morning Glory

5-10 grams of seeds

Aztec: Oliliuqui

Argyria nervosa

Hawaiian Baby Woodrose

4-8 seeds ingested

salvia divinorum potent hallucinogen
Salvia divinorum potent hallucinogen
  • Many other Salvia spp. may also contain psychoactive diterpenes. “Salvinorin A”
  • Related to Sage plants/Mint family
  • Does not grow in the United States naturally, but can readily be cultivated. Mexican origin
  • First reported in 1962 but popularity increased via Internet…
  • Leaves typically cut and smoked
  • Contains atropine, scopalomine, and…
  • Ancient ceremonial use in the U.S.
  • Occasional report of death by ingestion of root
  • Many other sources for atropine and scopalomine…mandrake, henbane…
amanita muscaria
Amanita muscaria

Found throughout the U.S.

Muscimol is the primary psychoactive alkaloid


bufo frogs
Bufo Frogs…
  • Contains bufontinin but intoxication primarily from 5-Meo-DMT
  • The toad is NOT licked but glands are milked for poison
botanical intoxicants future mayhem
Botanical intoxicants…future mayhem?
  • None of these plants are addictive, other than cultivation of the opium poppy in the U.S., which is not common. Illicit cultivation of Cannabis spp., of course, continues.
  • Eradication of the illicit drug market of hallucinogens may drive the “resourceful” to these botanicals more than today.
  • It is not feasible to eradicate these botanicals from U.S. territory
  • The Internet will drive an ever wider dissemination of information on these botanicals to those seeking this information