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Psychedelics and hallucinogens. Acetylcholine psychedelics Catecholamine-like psychedelics Serotonin-like psychedelics Psychedelic anaesthetics. Terms. Hallucinogen vs. illusionogen Perceptual distorter Phantasticum Neurodysleptic and psychotomimetic. Acetylcholine psychedelics.

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psychedelics and hallucinogens

Psychedelics and hallucinogens

Acetylcholine psychedelics

Catecholamine-like psychedelics

Serotonin-like psychedelics

Psychedelic anaesthetics

terms
Terms
  • Hallucinogen vs. illusionogen
  • Perceptual distorter
  • Phantasticum
  • Neurodysleptic and psychotomimetic
acetylcholine psychedelics
Acetylcholine psychedelics
  • AChE inhibitors
    • Physostigmine
    • Malathion and parathion
    • Sarin and soman
  • ACh blockers
    • Atropine and scopolamine
    • Hyoscyamine
  • ACh mimics: Muscarine, ibotenic acid, muscimol
plant sources of ach psychedelics
Plant sources of ACh psychedelics
  • Physostigma venenosum, Calabar bean
  • Solanaceae, family of potato and tomato
    • Atropa belladonna, deadly nightshade
    • Datura stramonium, jimsonweed
    • Mandragora officinarum, mandrake
    • Hyoscyamus niger, henbane
  • Amanita muscarii, fly agaric
acetylcholine psychedelics5

H3C

CH2OH

H2C

CH

O

CH2

CH3

CH

O

C

CH

N

Atropine

H2C

CH

CH2

Acetylcholine psychedelics

CH3

O

CH2

CH2

O

C

CH3

+N

CH3

Acetylcholine

catecholamine like psychedelics
Catecholamine-like psychedelics
  • Look like the catecholamine NTs and like cocaine and amphetamine, but they have additional CH3-O (methoxy) groups.
  • Catecholamine agonists as stimulants and reinforcers
  • Psychedelic effects from high-affinity serotonin2 partial agonism at postsynaptic receptors.
specific catecholamine psychedelics
Specific catecholamine psychedelics
  • Peyote/mescaline
  • Synthetic mescaline/amphetamine derivatives: Designer drugs
    • DOM/STP
    • MDA, TMA, MMDA
    • MDMA/Ecstasy/Adam
  • Myristicin and elemicin
serotonin like psychedelics
Serotonin-like psychedelics
  • LSD-25: Ergot
  • Ololiuqui: Heavenly blue morning glory
  • Harmine: Peganum harmala
  • Psilocybin and psilocin/Silly putty
    • Tryptamines
    • Magic Mushroom of Mexico, Psilocybe mexicana, ‘shrooms
    • Like other tryptamine hallucinogens, Schedule I
serotonin like psychedelics tryptamines
Serotonin-like psychedelics: Tryptamines
  • DMT: Piptadonia peregrina, Yopo
    • When yopo is roasted, the bufotenine (5-hydroxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine) is converted to DMT (dimethyltryptamine)
    • Sniffed, smoked, injected: 45-60 minute trip
    • Can be taken orally if another drug inhibits its metabolism by MAO
    • B-carbolines in Banisteriopsis and other plant sources of ayahuasca appear to inhibit MAO
  • Bufotenine: Highly toxic
    • Reported psychedelic effects may be due to peripheral toxicity
  • DET, AET, AMT, and N,N-diisopropyl-5-methoxytryptamine (Foxy methoxy)
psychedelic anaesthetics
Psychedelic anaesthetics
  • Phencyclidine (Sernyl/Sernylan)and ketamine (Ketalar)
    • PCP, angel dust, crystal, dust, embalming fluid, DOA, surfer; street K, special K
    • NMDA-glutamate complex:
      • Post-synaptic calcium influx
      • Long-term potentiation
      • PCP receptors antagonize the complex by blocking the receptors
    • Nitrous oxide and dextromethorphan may act similarly
is toad licking an urban legend
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  • Orally administered bufotenine is not hallucinogenic: It doesn’t cross the BBB
  • 5-methoxyDMT, found in Bufo alvarius rather than Bufo marinus, is hallucinogenic when smoked.