Unit I. PHE 360. Ancient Greece. Claudius Galen (A.D. 130-200) Studied the relationship between health and exercise Determined what types of exercise would impart physical changes. Renaissance. Hieronymous Mercurialis (1530-1606) Rebirth of Greek ideals
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Unit I PHE 360
Ancient Greece Claudius Galen (A.D. 130-200) • Studied the relationship between health and exercise • Determined what types of exercise would impart physical changes.
Renaissance Hieronymous Mercurialis (1530-1606) • Rebirth of Greek ideals • Published De Arte Gymnastica • Preventive and therapeutic exercises
19th Centruy Physical Education Programs in the United States Dr. Edward Hitchcock (1828-1911) hired in 1861 as Assistant Professor of Physical Training and Hygiene at Amherst College
Hitchcock • Medical Degree • First physical educator to receive professorial status • Developed system of anthropometrics: measurement of man. Used measurements to chart student progress.
Dr. Dudley A. Sargent (1849-1924) • In 1879 hired as Assistant Professor of Physical Training and Director of Hemenway Gymnasium at Harvard University • Developed over 90 patents for exercise machines. • Used individual exercises based on anthropometrics.
Norms • Based on data collected by Hitchcock and Sargent norms were established for college level physical performance. • Norms are performance standards collected from a large number of subjects. Norms are based on age, gender, experience, ability, and other characteristics.
Norms (cont.) • Norms can be used to create standards or expectations of performance. • Norms can then be used to make realistic standards for students to meet.
20th Century • Testing in physical education expanded to a number of attributes other than anthropometrics.
Classification of body types Body composition Power Agility Motor ability Balance Flexibility Speed and Reaction time Strength CV endurance Sport skills Posture Social and Psych Knowledge Attributes
Physical Fitness Testing • Military preparedness in WWI and WWII • Tests were utilized to determine physical eligibility of draftees. • Kraus-Weber Test: American school aged students were compared to Europeans in 1953. • 60% of American students failed; 9% of European students failed
Fitness (cont.) • Kraus-Weber test results prompted President Eisenhower in 1956 to establish the President’s Council on Youth Fitness • A national physical fitness test was developed
Pertinent Questions • Did the program fulfill the course objectives? • What percentage of the students enrolled in the course achieved the objectives? • Why was there a percentage of students who did not fulfill the objectives? • What was the degree of improvement among students?
Test A test is an instrument used to gain information about individuals or objects.
Measurement Measurement is the procedures used to collect information.
Quantification • Quantifiable in terms of time, distance, amount, or number correct. • Quantification is the assignment of numbers to objects or events to describe their properties
Evaluation Evaluation is the process of determining the value or worth of collected data.
Summary A test is an instrument used to gain information, e.g., a scale; measurement is a procedure for collecting the information, e.g., student will step on scale and numerical weight is recorded; and evaluation is a process of determining the value or worth of the information, e.g., what does the student’s weight mean.