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Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa. Negritude Movement. A movement for African independence that started before World War II. French–speaking Africans and West Indians celebrated their heritage of traditional African culture and values. Ghana [former British colony] 1957.

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Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa


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    1. Ch 18.3 New Nations in Africa

    2. Negritude Movement A movement for African independence that started before World War II. French–speaking Africans and West Indians celebrated their heritage of traditional African culture and values.

    3. Ghana [former British colony]1957 • Revolutionary Leader: Kwame Nkumah • Nkrumah’s Tactics: • Organized boycotts and strikes • Reforms: • Expensive Health, education, & welfare programs • Dreamed of “United States of Africa” • Problems he faced: • Overthrown by a coup in 1966 • Political & Economic Instability since then

    4. Kwami Nkrumah

    5. Current President of Ghana Professor John Atta Mills

    6. Kenya [Former British Colony] 1963 • Tactics used by the Mau-Mau: • Frighten whites & forced them out of the northern highlands • Kenyatta’s Reforms: • Tried to unite ethnic & language groups • Develop businesses • Resulting Problems: • Civil Unrest under next leader, Daniel arap Moi

    7. MZEE JOMO KENYATTA 1ST PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC OF KENYA

    8. Current President of KenyaMwai Kibaki • The International Crimes Court is currently investigating the widespread civil unrest in Kenya and allegations of corruption and violations of human rights. • Current warnings against travel to Kenya have been issued through the U.S. State Department.

    9. Zaire, 1960 (Democratic Republic of Congo) • Former colony of Belgium • Gained independence by: Granted suddenly by Belgium • Mobutu’s rule was: Brutal & Corrupt. • Resulting problems: • Depleted resources • Extreme Poverty • Social Unrest; He was overthrown by Laurent Kabila in 1997. Kabila was assassinated in 2001. His son, Joseph Kabila, took power.

    10. Mobutu Sese Seko

    11. Laurent Kabila Joseph Kabila

    12. Algeria [Former colony of France] 1962 • Gained independence by: • FLN (Algerian Nat’l Liberation Front) fought against France for their independence. • Ben Bella’s Program • Attempted to form a socialist state but was overthrown by a coup in 1965 • Problems: • Unsuccessful attempts to industrialize • High Unemployment • Rise of Fundamentalist Islamists • Continuing civil unrest

    13. Ahmed Ben Bella

    14. Current President of AlgeriaAbdelaziz Bouteflika “Elected” in 2004 after all other candidates dropped out.

    15. Angola [Former colony of Portugal] 1975 • Gained independence by: Fought against Portugal • Causes of their civil war: • Communist rebel group MPLA declared itself the rightful ruler of independent Angola. They were supported by Cuba & USSR • UNITA rebel group fought against MPLA with support from the USA • Continuing problems: • Civil war continued until 2002.

    16. José Eduardo dos Santos • President of Angola since l979. • His son is Vice President.