Thomas O. Henderson, Ph. D. Professor Emeritus Dept. of Biochemistry & Molecular Genetics Office: 321 CMW Phone: 6-5978 email: firstname.lastname@example.org. Macronutrients. Lecture 2 Carbohydrates & Fiber Lecture 3 Fats (Lipids) Lecture 4 Proteins. From MMWR 53 , No. 4; February 6, 2004.
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From MMWR 53, No. 4; February 6, 2004
% of daily calories
Carbohydrates 45 - 65
Fats 20 - 35%
Proteins 10 - 35%
When fat intakes are low and carb intake is high:
These all consistent with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD; CAD)
If fat intake is at high end of 20 -35% range, one would be well advised to
Forms of Starch provide glucose for brain function
(NOT a form
On a Food Label, Sugars Include: provide glucose for brain function
brown sugar invert sugar
corn sweetener lactose
corn syrup maltose
fruit juice concentrate raw sugar
glucose (dextrose) [table] sugar (sucrose)
high-fructose corn syrup syrup
2 possible consequences are
Ways in which sugar alcohols cause cell damage and pathologies not known
However, since they do not diffuse out of cells very readily, they can cause cell damage by cellular swelling associated with osmosis
The enzymatic reactions are reversible so that favored direction is determined by substrate/product concentrations (i. e., “mass action”)
An estimate of how well a diabetic patient has controlled her/his hyperglycemia over past 5-6 weeks can be made by measuring extent of hemoglobin glycosylation (HbA1c)
D-galactose 1-P uridyltransferase and galactokinase
Incidence = 1 in n live births
Prevalence = 1 in n people
Essential Fructosuria metabolism
“Baby Bottle” Caries metabolism
“Baby Bottle” Caries. metabolism
Rampant caries due to use of sugar-sweetened
beverages in nursing bottle as a pacifier
From Nutrition in Clinical Dentistry, 3/ed, 1989, A. E. Nizel and A. S. Papas (W. B. Saunders), Fig. 3-7, p. 46.
Glycemic index of a carbohydrate defined as incremental area under blood glucose response curve of a 50g carbohydrate portion of a test food expressed as a percentage of the response to the same amount of carbohydrate from a standard food (usually glucose or white bread) taken by the same subject.
Number of factors influence GI besides amount or type of carbohydrate in a meal.
In a multi-component food or meal, these include:
American Diabetes Society issued Position Statement entitled “Evidence-Based Nutrition Principles and Recommendations for the Treatment and Prevention of Diabetes and Related Complications”