Please discontinue use of cell phone and turn off ringer Chapter 5 Telecom, Wireless & Networks Fundamentals Media, Devices, and Software Wireless Telecommunications Networks and Distributed Computing
Key Terms • Telecommunications • Networking media • Analog signal • Digital signal • Bandwidth • Broadband 5.1 Fundamentals of Telecommunications
Telecommunications • Telecommunications: The electronic transmission of signals over a medium for communications. (cables or air) Sender and Receiver must “speak” the same language.
Analog Signal: transmit sound using continuously varying levels of voltage. • Digital Signal: transmits data using two discrete states of voltage: high and low Types of Signals
Signal Frequency • Frequency: the speed at which a signal changes from high to low (Figure 5.4) • Bandwidth: the range of signal frequencies that can be sent over a given medium at the same time. • Often expressed as bits per second • Broadband: faster than 200Kbps
Key Terms • Twisted pair cable • Coaxial cable • Fiber-optic cable • Radio wave • Modem • Network adapter • Microwave transmission • Communications satellite • Ethernet 5.2 Networking Media, Devices, and Software The fundamental components of telecommunications networks
Twisted Pair Cable • Coaxial Cable • Fiber Optic Cable Networking Media Used for traditional phone lines, twisted pairs of wires in plastic sheathing. Used for home cable TV, thick copper core wire – faster than twisted pair. Thin strands of glass are used to send light beams – highest bandwidth cable, most expensive. • Radio Waves Electromagnetic waves transmitted through the air at various frequencies.
Radio Waves (Figure 5.7) • Radio waves use differing frequencies to carry many types of information: • AM & FM Radio • Short Wave & CB Radio • Television Broadcasts • Garage Doors Openers • Baby Monitors • Cordless Phones • Cell Phones • Radio Controlled Cars and Airplanes • Global Positioning Systems • Wireless Computer Networks • Microwave Communications http://www.nrpb.org/understand/radiowaves/radiowaves.htm http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/radio-spectrum1.htm
300 GHz 30 GHz 2.9 GHz Deep space radio communications (2.29-2.3 GHz) Wi-fi Wireless Networks (2.4 GHz) Global Positioning System 1.23 and 1.58 GHz Air traffic Control (960-1,215 MHz) 900-MHz cordless phones Cell Phones (824-849 MHz) 328.6 MHz TV CH 7-13 (174-220 MHz) FM Radio (88-108 MHz) TV CH 2-6 (54-88 MHz) Cordless Phones (40-50 MHz) 30 MHz CB Radio (26.96-27.41 MHz) 3 MHz AM Radio (535-1700 kHz) 300kHz 30 kHz 10 kHz The Radio Spectrum http://www.fcc.gov/oet/spectrum/
Networking Devices • Modem: modulates and demodulates signals from one form to another. • Network Adapter: Expansion card, or external device installed on a computing device used to connect to a network.
Networking Devices • Network Control Devices: • Hub/Switch • Controls flow of data between devices on a network • Router • Routs packets to destinations and connects one network to another • Wireless Access Point • Allows devices to connect wirelessly to a wired network
High-frequency radio signals sent up to 30 miles through the air. Microwave Communications
Microwave Communications ! Line-of-sight communications
Satellite Transmission Microwave Communications Line-of-sight required
Networking Software • Network administrators are responsible for setting up and maintaining the network. • A network operating system coordinates the network components to support telecommunications. • Ethernet is the most widely used network standard for private networks.
Review 1) Does 88.9 FM use an analog or digital signal? 2) Does a cell phone use an analog or digital signal? 3)Which type of cable has the highest bandwidth?
Key Terms • Cellular network • Cellular carrier • Global positioning system • Wireless fidelity (wi-fi) • WiMAX • Bluetooth • Radio frequency identification 5.3 Wireless Telecommunications Technologies
Cell Phone Technologies • A cellular network is a radio network in which a geographic area is divided into cells, with a transmission tower and station at the center of each cell, to support mobile communications.
Cell Phone Technologies • A cellular carrier is a company that builds and maintains a cellular network and provides cell phone service to the public.
GSM and CDMA • Digital networking standards for cell phone networks are GSM and CDMA. • GSM is the most popular global standard for mobile phones • The CDMA networking standard is predominantly used in the United States where it is in equal competition with GSM.
GSM and CDMA • GSM Phones include a subscriber identity module (SIM) for security and convenient data transfer between phones.
Cell Phone Technologies • Consumers choose a carrier based on coverage area, handsets available, and services provided – service contracts are typically for two years.
Cell Phone Technologies • Learn about Service Plans, Handsets, Features, and Services by clicking the logos below.
Cell Phone Technologies • Cell phone accessories provide added features for example… • A 2 GB mini SD memory card can provide ample storage digital photos, music, and video files. • A Bluetooth headset allows you to interact with your phone without taking it out of your pocket. • Car chargers allow you to charge your cell phone from your car power supply. • Assorted cases protect cell phones from damage and make them handy to access.
Wireless Technologies • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. Aircraft Navigation
Wireless Technologies • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. Seacraft Autopilot
Wireless Technologies • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. Automobile Navigation
Wireless Technologies • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. Handheld Navigation
Wireless Technologies • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. Child Safety
Wirless Technologies • The Global Positioning System (GPS) uses satellites to pinpoint the location of receivers on earth. Emergency Call
AccessPoint Wireless Technologies • Wireless Fidelity (IEEE 802.11), or Wi-fi, is wireless networking technology that makes use of access points to connect devices to networks. • 250-1,000 ft range • 802.11b 4.5 Mbps • 802.11g 11 Mbps • www.boingo.com • http://talgov.com/citytlh/utilities/ubcs/canopy.html
Wireless Technologies • WiMAX (IEEE 802.16) is the next generation broadband technology that is both faster and has a longer range than Wi-fi – 31 miles! Seattle’s Space Needle To Become WiMax Antenna http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WiMAX
Wireless Technologies • Bluetooth is wireless technology that enables a wide variety of digital devices to communicate directly. • 33 ft range • 1 Mbps • www.bluetooth.com
Wireless Technologies • Infrared (IrDA) technology utilizes infrared rays to send data over a short distance wirelessly. • 14 ft range • Narrow-angle cone (30o) • Line-of-sight • 4-16 Mbps • www.mzoop.com
Wireless Technologies • Radio Frequency ID (RFID) uses tiny transponders in tags that can be attached to merchandise or other objects and read using an RFID receiver or reader for the purpose of identification. • Privacy issues hold this technology back from item-level labeling and barcode replacement. http://www.rfidjournal.com/
Review 4)What technology is able to display your current location on a map? 5)What is today’s most popular wireless network standard?
Key Terms • Personal Area Network • Local Area Network • Intranet • Virtual Private Network • Metropolitan Area Network • Wide Area Network 5.4 Networks and Distributed Computing
Computer Network Concepts • Distributed Computing refers to a computing environment that includes multiple remote computers that work together to solve problems and provide services. • Database Servers • Application Servers • File Servers • Print Servers
Network Types • Personal Area Network (PAN) • The wireless interconnection of personal information technology devices within the range of an individual. • Mostly associated with Bluetooth technology http://www.scottevest.com/v3_product_info/features.shtml
The original PAN was designed by Thomas Zimmerman and allowed users to pass digital electronic information through touch, by transferring information from one person’s device to another’s, running a subtle current through the body. Network Types • Personal Area Network (PAN) – Alternate Definition • The human body is used to conduct a minimal electric current to transfer information from one individual’s device to another’s. http://www.almaden.ibm.com/cs/user/pan/pan.html
Exchange emails through handshakeTWO Japanese telecoms giants have developed technology that turns the human body into a broadband-paced link that allows e-mail addresses to be exchanged through a simple handshake, a report said Monday.The technology, developed by Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corp. and its subsidiary NTT DoCoMo Inc., uses the body's conductivity and adds the smarts of a personal digital assistant (PDA), the Nihon Keizai Shimbun said. A device attached to a PDA can send and receive weak electrical signals through people, with human bodies as communications circuits, the paper said, citing sources close to the companies. Apparel and handbags have their own conductivity, allowing an electrical connection to a PDA that can remain in one's pocket, the paper said. In this way, people can exchange e-mail addresses, names and phone numbers while shaking hands, with the data automatically written into both their PDAs, the paper said. The companies have confirmed in an experiment that data can be transmitted at 10 megabits per second, comparable to the speed of a broadband Internet connection, it said. The technology could allow data communications through door knobs, switches, desks and chairs, the paper said. It could pave the way to one day being able to pass through railway ticket gates or entering secure buildings with a simple touch. It could also get a computer to start up with the proper settings as soon as the user sat down, the paper said. Agence France-Presse See also “Microsoft patents body power”
Network Types • Local Area Network (LAN) • Connects computer systems and devices within a common geographic area
Wirelessaccess point System Administrator Servers Local Area Network switch Startopology Bustopology
Network Types • Intranet • A private network that utilizes Internet and Web protocols and software. • Virtual Private Network (VPN) • Uses the Internet to connect an organization’s networks dispersed around the world into one large intranet.
Network Types • A Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) connects networks within a city or metropolitan-size area into a larger high-speed network.
router FSU Tallahassee LAN router FSU Panama City LAN Network Types Wide Area NetworkConnects LANs between cities, cross country, and around the world using microwave and satellite transmission or telephone lines.