Wireless Networks Tyler Batt Nov. 19, 2010
What is Wireless Networking? • Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes are implemented without the use of wires. Wireless telecommunications networks are generally implemented with some type of remote information transmission system that uses electromagnetic waves, such as radio waves, for the carrier and this implementation usually takes place at the physical level or "layer" of the network.
Where are Wireless Networks Used? • Where wired networks are used • Remote monitoring • On automatic guided vehicle systems • For shelf access equipment • In systems for storage logistics • On robotic palletisers • On production lines
When are Wireless Networks Used? • When installing wired networks is not possible or very difficult • AVG • On rotating parts • When wired networks is too costly to install • Large distances to cover • Replacement to wired networks • Expand the existing infrastructure
Why Use Wireless Networks? • Lower Costs. The costs associated with installing, maintaining, troubleshooting, and upgrading wiring have escalated while costs of wireless technology maintenance continue to drop – particularly in the areas of installation and maintenance. A market study by the Venture Development Corporation found that users of wireless technology cite lower cost as a major reason for adoption. • Installation.Wireless valves monitoring systems could ultimately eliminate tens of thousands of feet of wiring in the average industrial site. • Maintenance. As wires age, they can crack and fail. Inspecting, testing, troubleshooting, repairing, and replacing wires requires time, labor, and materials. If wiring faults cause a production stoppage, costs escalate rapidly. Wireless monitoring systems obviate any costs associated with running new wires and eliminate associated downtime. • Improved Flexibility. Without the constraint of wires, plant managers can better track materials and more easily reconfigure assembly lines to meet changing customer demands. Freedom from wires also allows greater flexibility in placement – particularly in the case of mobile equipment (e.g., cranes and ladles). • Rapid Commissioning. Simple wireless monitoring systems can be rapidly and easily organized and configured into an effective communications network. Self-calibration and verification open the door to the deployment of ad hoc wireless monitoring systems and offer a broad range of production scenarios.
Cost • Sensors – Wireless approximately doubles initial cost but eliminates setup • Basic Routers $200+ • Cellular Routers $700-$1000 • Serial to Wireless External Adapter $370-$730 • Wireless Camera $100+
Supporting Technology • Wired Networks • Computer • Monitoring and Control • Routers • Extenders • Gateways • Sensors
Standard Operational Frequencies • Long Range • 900 MHz • Short Range • 2.4 GHz • 3.6 GHz • 5 GHz
Limitations • Some materials limit transmission distance • Interference (Electrical/Magnetic) • Cost of conversion • Security • Transmission Speed • Transmission Delay • Transmission Reliability (lost data must be resent)
Vendors • B&B Electronics • Advantech Wireless • N-Tron • Digi • GE • Cisco • Siemens • Pilz • Wireless Sensors
Standards • ISA100.11a: An open-standard wireless networking technology developed by ISA. The official description is "Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation: Process Control and Related Applications". • ZigBee:A specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), such as wireless light switches with lamps, electrical meters with in-home-displays, consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio. • WirelessHART: An open-standard wireless networking technology developed by HART Communication Foundation. The protocol utilizes a time synchronized, self-organizing, and self-healing mesh architecture. The protocol currently supports operation in the 2.4 GHz ISM Band using IEEE 802.15.4 standard radios. • IEEE 802.15.4: standard which specifies the physical layer and media access control for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). It is maintained by the IEEE 802.15 working group. • IEEE 802.11: The WLAN standard was originally 1 Mbit/s and 2 Mbit/s, 2.4 GHz RF and infrared [IR] standard (1997), all the others listed below are Amendments to this standard, except for Recommended Practices 802.11F and 802.11T. • IEEE 802.11a: 54 Mbit/s, 5 GHz standard (1999, shipping products in 2001) • IEEE 802.11b: Enhancements to 802.11 to support 5.5 and 11 Mbit/s (1999) • IEEE 802.11c: Bridge operation procedures; included in the IEEE 802.1D standard (2001) • IEEE 802.11d: International (country-to-country) roaming extensions (2001) • IEEE 802.11e: Enhancements: QoS, including packet bursting (2005) • IEEE 802.11F: Inter-Access Point Protocol (2003) Withdrawn February 2006 • IEEE 802.11g: 54 Mbit/s, 2.4 GHz standard (backwards compatible with b) (2003) • IEEE 802.11h: Spectrum Managed 802.11a (5 GHz) for European compatibility (2004) • IEEE 802.11i: Enhanced security (2004) • IEEE 802.11j: Extensions for Japan (2004) • IEEE 802.11-2007: A new release of the standard that includes amendments a, b, d, e, g, h, i & j. (July 2007) • IEEE 802.11k: Radio resource measurement enhancements (2008) • IEEE 802.11n: Higher throughput improvements using MIMO (multiple input, multiple output antennas) (September 2009) • IEEE 802.11p: WAVE—Wireless Access for the Vehicular Environment (such as ambulances and passenger cars) (July 2010) • IEEE 802.11r: Fast BSS transition (FT) Working "Task Group r" (2008) • IEEE 802.11s: Mesh Networking, Extended Service Set (ESS) (~ June 2011) • IEEE 802.11T: Wireless Performance Prediction (WPP)—test methods and metrics Recommendation cancelled • IEEE 802.11u: Interworking with non-802 networks (for example, cellular) (~ Dec 2010) • IEEE 802.11v: Wireless network management (~ Dec 2010) • IEEE 802.11w: Protected Management Frames (September 2009) • IEEE 802.11y: 3650–3700 MHz Operation in the U.S. (2008) • IEEE 802.11z: Extensions to Direct Link Setup (DLS) (September 2010) • IEEE 802.11mb: Maintenance of the standard. Will become 802.11-2011. (~ Dec 2011) • IEEE 802.11aa: Robust streaming of Audio Video Transport Streams(~ Mar 2012) • IEEE 802.11ac: Very High Throughput <6 GHz; potential improvements over 802.11n: better modulation scheme (expected ~10% throughput increase); wider channels (80 or even 160 MHz), multi user MIMO; (~ Dec 2012) • IEEE 802.11ad: Very High Throughput 60 GHz (~ Dec 2012) • IEEE 802.11ae: QoS Management (~ Dec 2011) • IEEE 802.11af: TV Whitespace (~ Mar 2012) • IEEE 802.11ah: Sub 1Ghz (~ July 2013)
Common Standards • IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n (WLAN): A set of standards carrying out wireless local area network (WLAN) computer communication in the 2.4, 3.6 and 5 GHz frequency bands. • IEEE 802.15.4 (WPAN): standard which specifies the physical layer and media access control for low-rate wireless personal area networks (LR-WPANs). It is maintained by the IEEE 802.15 working group. • ZigBee:A specification for a suite of high level communication protocols using small, low-power digital radios based on the IEEE 802.15.4-2003 standard for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), such as wireless light switches with lamps, electrical meters with in-home-displays, consumer electronics equipment via short-range radio. • WirelessHART: An open-standard wireless networking technology developed by HART Communication Foundation. The protocol utilizes a time synchronized, self-organizing, and self-healing mesh architecture. The protocol currently supports operation in the 2.4 GHz ISM Band using IEEE 802.15.4 standard radios. • ISA100.11a: An open-standard wireless networking technology developed by the International Society of Automation. The official description is "Wireless Systems for Industrial Automation: Process Control and Related Applications".
“Wireless Horizons” - Technical Paper • Future of Wireless in Automation • Ultra low power consumption • Robustness against physical and electrical interference • Self-configuration • Openness to WAN and complementary wireless technologies • Configuration in tree, star and mesh network topologies • Design for multiple network co-existence • Developer APIs with product development toolkits • 5 billionth device will soon connect to the internet • Cellular frequencies and speeds • RFID http://www.ceasiamag.com/article-6765-wirelesshorizons-LogisticsAsia.html
Videos • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxd9uFJ3cow • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qpu0BAEZw2s&feature=related
Application • Would wireless be a good option? Why or why not? • You want to measure the speed of a motor and transmit the data to a control panel. • You are building a new facility and want to collect data and manage the facility from your current facility which is 2 miles away. • Your facility has become old and you are having issues with your wired communication. Some of your plant requires real time transmission but the majority is just data collection.
Summary • Wireless network refers to any type of computer network that is wireless, and is commonly associated with a telecommunications network whose interconnections between nodes are implemented without the use of wires. • Why Wireless • Lower Costs • Installation • Maintenance • Improved Flexibility • Rapid Commissioning • Standards • IEEE 802.11a/b/g/n (WLAN) • IEEE 802.15.4 (WPAN) • ZigBee • WirelessHART • ISA100.11a
References • http://www.digi.com/ • www.n-tron.com • http://www.gedigitalenergy.com/Communications/Wireless.htm • http://www.pilz.com • http://www.wirelesssensors.com/ • http://www1.eere.energy.gov/industry/sensors_automation/pdfs/meetings/0604/presentations/03_ge_sexton_cps_14226.pdf • http://www.automationmag.com/wireless.html • www.cisco.com • http://www.wib.nl/files/miniseminar2007_item_3b.pdf • http://www.ceasiamag.com/article-6765-wirelesshorizons-LogisticsAsia.html • http://www.automation.com/resources-tools/articles-white-papers/wireless-networks-io/wireless-valve-monitoring-is-here