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OPT 253: Quantum Optics and Quantum Information Laboratory Final Presentation . R. A. Smith II 12/10/2008 Performed with C. Gettliffe M. Lahiri. Lab 3-4: Single Photon Source. Experimental Setup. Fluorescence Lifetime Measurement. Diode-pumped solid state laser excited DiI dyle molecules

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opt 253 quantum optics and quantum information laboratory final presentation

OPT 253: Quantum Optics and Quantum Information LaboratoryFinal Presentation

R. A. Smith II

12/10/2008

Performed with C. Gettliffe M. Lahiri

slide4

Fluorescence Lifetime Measurement

  • Diode-pumped solid state laser excited DiI dyle molecules
  • λ=532nm
  • Pulse Separation: 13.2ns
  • DiI Dye Molecule Fluorescence Lifetime: τ=3.44ns
  • APD signal was used as a start trigger; Electric pulse from laser was used as a stop trigger
slide5

EM-CCD Capture of Fluorescing Quantum Dots

Acquisition time: 300ms

Gain: 255

Widefield micrsocopy scan of Colloidal Quantum Dots hosted in a Cholesteric Liquid Crystal

Quantum Dots illuminated with Diode-Pumped Solid State Laser

spatial scan of colloidal qd s hosted in clc
Spatial Scan of Colloidal QD’s Hosted in CLC
  • 5μm x 5μm spatial scan of Sample of QD’s in CLC
  • APD 1 (top left) and APD2 (bottom left) show fluorescence of quantum dots when excited with pulsed laser
  • Confocal microscopy used to illuminate sample
  • One coordinate location of the sample was scanned temporally (above right)
  • Blinking confirms existence of single quantum dot
coincidence counts of temporal scans
Coincidence Counts of Temporal Scans
  • Coincidence counts of 5ms temporal scan of QD’s in CLC host
  • The nearly zero occurrences of zero interphoton time shows the antibunching of the photons being emitted by the QD
  • Antibunched photons shows single photon emission by QD
possible improvements to lab 3 4
Possible Improvements to Lab 3-4
  • Quantum Dot Concentration
experiemental setup
Experiemental Setup

Polarizing B/S

M1

Laser

Spatial Filter

ND Filters

45°

Polarizer

EM-CCD Camera

M2

Non-Polarizing B/S

45°

Polarizer

Young’s Double Slit Experiment

M1

Laser

Spatial Filter

ND Filters

Glass with slits

EM-CCD Camera

Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Setup

wave particle duality

Wave-Particle Duality

  • Photons exhibit both characteristics of waves and particles
  • Wave phenomenon is exhibited by photons when photons are not “observed”
  • In the presence of an observer, the photons behave as particles
  • Without a linear polarizer oriented at 45° at the exit of the Mach-Zehnder interferometer, the path of the photon is being observed by the system
  • As a result, the photons act as particles and interference is destroyed
  • With the polarizer in place, the photons act as waves
photon spacing
Photon Spacing
  • Helium-Neon laser used
  • λ=633nm
  • Φ = 0.27μW
  • 9x1011 photons/s
  • Neutral Density Filters were used to space one photon every 100 meters
  • Transmission ≈ 10-6
  • All pictures have a photon separation of 100 m
young s double slit experiment
Young’s Double Slit Experiment
  • Gain:0
  • Acquisition time: 0.3s
  • Transmission: 1.57 x10-1
  • 4.24x1010 photons
  • Gain: 255
  • Acquisition time: 1.0s
  • Transmission: ≈1.0x10-6
  • 9.0x105 photons
young s double slit experiment14
Young’s Double Slit Experiment
  • Gain: 255
  • Acquisition time: 20.0s
  • Transmission: ≈ 1.0 x10-6
  • 1.80x107 photons
  • Gain: 255
  • Acquisition time: 25.0s
  • Transmission: ≈ 1.0x10-6
  • 2.25x107 photons
mach zehnder interferometer images
Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Images
  • No Interference Fringes (Polarizer Removed)
  • Gain: 100
  • Acquisition time: 0.3s
  • Transmission: ≈ 1.0 x10-2
  • 2.70x102 photons
  • Interference Fringes (Polarizer Present)
  • Gain: 100
  • Acquisition time: 0.3s
  • Transmission: ≈ 1.0 x10-2
  • 2.70x109 photons
mach zehnder interferometer images16
Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Images
  • Interference Fringes (Polarizer Present)
  • Gain: 255
  • Acquisition time: 1.0s
  • Transmission: ≈ 1.0 x10-2
  • 9.0x109 photons
  • Interference Fringes (Polarizer Present)
  • Gain: 255
  • Acquisition time: 5.0s
  • Transmission: ≈ 1.0 x10-6
  • 4.50x106 photons
mach zehnder interferometer images17
Mach-Zehnder Interferometer Images
  • Interference Fringes Visibility from picture at left, maximum: 80%, minimum: 67%
  • Definite peaks demonstrates interference at low photon levels
  • Interference Fringes (Polarizer Present)
  • Gain: 255
  • Acquisition time: 10s
  • Transmission: ≈ 1.0 x10-2
  • 9.0x106 photons
entanglement
Entanglement

Quantum State without Entanglement

Entangled Quantum State

  • When the wave functions of two particles are coupled, or the wave functions cannot be factored apart, the particles are said to be in an entangled quantum state.
  • If the wave function of one state is observed, then the wave function of the second state is known
experimental setup
Experimental Setup

Mirror

Laser

Lens

Blue Filter

Quartz Plate

Setup for Photographing Down-converted Photons

BBO Crystals

Polarizer A

Polarizer B

Beam

Stop

APD A

APD B

EM-CCD Camera

Laser λ=363.8nm

Neutral Density Filter

Thick BBO Crystal

Setup for Testing Bell’s Inequalities

beta barium borate bbo crystal
Beta Barium Borate (BBO) Crystal

Down-conversion of a horizontal polarization state to two vertical polarization states

Down-conversion of a vertical polarization state to two horizontal polarization states

When two BBO crystals are combined, the photons that exit the second BBO crystal are in a state of quantum entanglement

cone of down converted photons
Cone of Down-Converted Photons

Cone of Down-Converted Photons after passing through a BBO Crystal

quartz plate alignment
Quartz Plate Alignment

Graph coincidence counts as a function of horizontal quartz plate alignment, taken 8 December 2008.

quartz plate alignment25
Quartz Plate Alignment

Graph coincidence counts as a function of vertical quartz plate alignment, taken 8 December 2008.

cosine squared dependence on polarizer angle rotation
Cosine Squared Dependence on Polarizer Angle Rotation

Coincidence counts as a function of Polarizer angle from quartz plate alignment made 1 December 2008

cosine squared dependence on polarizer angle rotation27
Cosine Squared Dependence on Polarizer Angle Rotation

Coincidence counts as a function of Polarizer angle from quartz plate alignment made 1 December 2008

bell s inequality
Bell’s Inequality

Bell’s Inequality is calculated by the following:

where

And N(α,β) is the number of coincidence counts for Polarizer A at angle α and Polarizer B at angle β.

  • If S ≤ |2|, the correlation is classical
  • If S ≥ |2|, the correlation violates Bell’s Inequality, implying a quantum correlation
results of bell s inequality
Results of Bell’s Inequality

Coincidence Counts at Various Polarization Rotation Angles for quartz plate alignment from 8 December 2008

Calculation of Bell’s Inequality

possible improvements to lab 1
Possible Improvements to Lab 1
  • Quartz Plate Mounting
  • LabView Software
  • Stable Alignment