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Introductory Lectures in Fundamentals of Christian Leadership. INTRODUCTION. OBJECTIVES FOR THIS SEMINAR. Be able to recognize the trend from history of how leadership theories and styles developed.

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objectives for this seminar
OBJECTIVES FOR THIS SEMINAR
  • Be able to recognize the trend from history of how leadership theories and styles developed.
  • Understand the different types of leadership and their functional significance to train leaders.
  • Internalize value of Biblical images for shaping and motivating.
  • Realize the importance for the leader to recognize his vision and the vision of the emerging leader.
  • To recognize the leaders is responsible for his growth
  • Define and correctly use power and authority
the origin of leadership theories
The Origin of Leadership Theories
  • Leadership has always been an important function in the economy of God.
    • Without it the world would be in total chaos.
      • However, God is a God of order, and He ordained leadership as the means to maintain order and to keep the world functioning.
functions of leadership
Functions of leadership
  • There are many leadership functions in the world, whether secular or religious.
    • The Church, the most important institution for God on earth, exists to be the light and salt of the earth.
    • It was given birth by the greatest leader of all, Jesus Christ, who not only created the universe but also ordered it to function in an orderly way.
god s principle of shared leadership
God’s principle of shared leadership
  • Both astronomy and science has confirmed what the Bible teaches about the perfect cycles of planets around the sun throughout their existence.
    • This perfect universe declares the glory of God to anyone who truly considers the work of His fingers (Psalm 8:3 NIV).
    • But in His perfect wisdom, God gave man the responsibility to rule over all His creation (Psalm 8:6), and be a good steward towards creation (Genesis 1:28—31)
the role of the church in leadership
The role of the church in leadership
  • Christians hold to the view the Church is to radiate (reflect by example) the glory of God in all areas of life, including leadership.
    • The world is filled with many levels and functions of leadership.
    • Many corrupt and ungodly principles rule these levels and functions of worldly leadership.
    • The universal Church is expected to be an example to the world concerning leadership.
the manifold of leadership
The manifold of leadership
  • Most people are leaders in general ways.
    • A man who is an employee can assume the role of
      • Manager at work
      • father to lead his family at home
      • elder in the church
    • A young man who is a student can
      • lead his soccer team during school games
      • Organize the outings with his friends
      • Lead his siblings (home or church) into prayers
the responsibility of the church
The responsibility of the church
  • Consequently, all church members have a divine leadership calling to lead and influence others to follow Christ in one way or the other.
    • A knowledge of foundation for Christian leadership is important for every believer in any level of leadership.
    • It will help each member in the body Christ to find his or her place in the church.
    • Then each member can become effective in leading lost souls into the eternal kingdom of God and fulfill God’s plan to the world.
the great man theory
THE GREAT MAN THEORY
  • History is filled with the names of prominent leaders of the past such as
    • Caesar
    • Napoleon
    • Alexander the Great
    • Gandhi.
  • At the turn of the twentieth century, leaders were thought of as superior individuals.
    • Their special qualities were considered to have come from one of these two sources:
are leaders made or born
Are leaders made, or born?”
  • This is familiar question, based upon the great man theory.
    • While the answer is not totally conclusive, it seems that leaders are
are leaders made or born16
Are leaders made, or born?”
  • This is familiar question, based upon the great man theory.
    • While the answer is not totally conclusive, it seems that leaders are
slide17

This concept that became known as the Great-Man Theory was widely accepted by both secular and Christian scholars.

    • Both groups emphasized the greatness and uniqueness of their chosen subjects.
implications
Implications
  • While the Great-Man Theory had some shortcomings, it did provide us with a positive step forward in our understanding of leadership.
    • For this reason it was a research breakthrough that led to the publication for several decades of many biographies of great leaders.
slide19

It soon became evident, however, that this theory had limited value.

    • It does not help Christian leadership development to debate whether Moses was a leader because of hereditary factors or because of the Egyptian court education he received!
      • Research needed to be more specific.
      • So researchers moved to what is known as the Personality-Traits Theory in an effort to identify the specific qualities of a leader that make him different from a follower.
the personality traits theory
THE PERSONALITY-TRAITS THEORY
  • In the 1940s leadership research concentrated on personality traits.
    • Attention moved from the kind (personality) of person the leader was to the study of characteristic traits found in successful leaders.
slide21

In 1948 R. M. Stogdill published an article that was acclaimed as a major advance in leadership theory.

    • Stogdill’s method was to divide into six broad categories the traits found in effective leaders.
    • The categories are:
slide22

Stogdill spent many more years of research on this theory, expanding and developing his earlier findings.

    • The theory did make a useful contribution to leadership studies.
    • It demonstrated how certain traits are consistent with effective leadership.
    • It also directed trainers to those who should be trained, and it illustrated certain characteristics that set leaders apart from followers.
implications23
Implications
  • However, there were some serious shortcomings in the theory.
    • Little success was achieved in selecting leaders on the basis of traits.
    • The approach ignored the relationship between the leader and his or her followers,
    • the leadership context wasnot taken into consideration.
      • (By context I mean the set of circumstances that surround an event.)
slide24

Another serious deficiency was that the theory focused on one culture.

    • It only looked at Western cultural traits, overlooking other cultures and the sets of traits they value.
    • Anthropologists have shown us the extent to which each culture has its unique worldview.
slide26

As a result of these weaknesses in the Personality-Traits Theory, those who studied leadership theory moved to an examination of leadership behavioral styles.

leadership style theories
LEADERSHIP STYLE THEORIES
  • Leadership style refers to the way a leader relates to his or her followers and to the objectives of the group.
  • Researchers have discovered that leaders are usually oriented in one of two ways:
task oriented style
Task-Oriented Style
  • If leaders prefer to concentrate on achieving goals, they are task-oriented.
    • They are more concerned about results than about interpersonal relationships.
  • Autocratic leaders generally tend to be
  • directive (giving orders)
  • persuasive,
    • initiatory
    • making decisions

Task-oriented.

relations oriented style
Relations-Oriented Style
  • Leaders who prefer to interact with people are relations-oriented.
    • They maintain friendly relations with followers
    • Show an interest in them as individuals.
    • They are approachable and good at handling people.

Democratic leaders are regarded as being considerate,

supportive

consultative (willing to give advice)

Relations

oriented

laissez faire style
Laissez-Faire Style
  • Another group of leaders is composed of those who exhibit little or no leadership style.
    • The Laissez Faire Leadership Style was first described Lewin, Lippitt, and White in 1938
    • These leaders have often been appointed to a leadership position because of the absence or unwillingness of others to serve.
biblical example
Biblical example
  • Eli the priest could be placed in this category for his lack of leadership in preparing his sons properly for the priesthood.
    • “God told Samuel concerning Eli: ‘For I told him that I would judge his family forever because of the sin he knew about; his sons made themselves contemptible, and he failed to restrain them’” (1 Samuel 3:13).
ideal style
Ideal Style
  • Out of dissatisfaction with the traits-theory approach, researchers at the Ohio State University developed a graph in the early 1950s for measuring
slide34

Through questionnaires and interviews researchers were able to show on this graph a leader’s dominant style.

    • With the introduction of this research instrument, interest moved away from thinking of leadership in terms of gifts or qualities possessed by some people.
    • Instead, researchers concentrated on the possibility that leadership was an activity that some individuals engaged in.
slide36

Blake and Mouton (1964) took this concept a stage further and designed a managerial grid on which it was possible for a leader to compare his or her style with an ideal style.

    • This model made the assumption that any style, even a dominant one, could be modified and adapted to a particular situation.
    • Blake and Mouton claimed that this ideal style could be attained by any leader who was prepared to balance the emphasis between task and people.
managerial grid
Managerial Grid
  • This concept was widely accepted and is still very popular in the business world. A very simplified form of this grid is provided in the figure below
principled led leadership
PRINCIPLED LED LEADERSHIP
  • This is the most modern style of leadership advocated by Stephen Covey.
    • Principle Led Leadership is based on values and habits.
    • Principles embedded in the personality of the leader, will help him to lead and take decisions which come out of his trained and educated personality.
    • Principle Led leadership gives the leader consistency and credibility.
conclusion
Conclusion
  • Leaders should be concerned about training followers.
    • Leaders who are trained in leadership style theory not only are better leaders, but they also are more conscious of developing leaders and followers under them.
    • They will have an increases sensitivity toward followers and recognize that style will direclty affect followers rate of development.