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Conflict and negotiation. Chapter learning objectives. Distinguish task-related from socioemotional conflict. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of conflict in organisations. Identify six sources of organisational conflict. Outline the five interpersonal styles of conflict management.

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chapter learning objectives
Chapter learning objectives
  • Distinguish task-related from socioemotional conflict.
  • Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of conflict in organisations.
  • Identify six sources of organisational conflict.
  • Outline the five interpersonal styles of conflict management.
  • Summarise six structural approaches to managing conflict.
  • Outline four situational influences on negotiations.
  • Compare and contrast the three types of third-party dispute resolution.

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

conflict between woodside and shell
Conflict between Woodside and Shell

Executives at Woodside Petroleum and Royal Dutch/Shell experienced conflict when Shell recently tried to take majority ownership of the Perth-based oil and gas development company.

© AFP Photo/HO

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

conflict defined
Conflict defined

The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.

© AFP Photo/HO

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

the conflict process

Conflict

perceptions

Manifest

conflict

Conflict

outcomes

Conflict

emotions

The conflict process

Sources of

conflict

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

task related vs socioemotional conflict
Task-related vs socioemotional conflict
  • Task-related conflict
    • conflict is aimed at issue, not parties
    • basis of constructive controversy
    • helps recognise problems, identify solutions and understand the issues
  • Socioemotional conflict
    • conflict viewed as a personal attack
    • foundation of conflict escalation
    • leads to dissatisfaction, stress and turnover

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

organisational conflict outcomes
Organisational conflict outcomes
  • Dysfunctional outcomes
    • diverts energy and resources
    • encourages organisational politics
    • encourages stereotyping
    • weakens knowledge management
  • Potential benefits
    • improves decision making
    • strengthens team dynamics

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

sources of conflict
Sources of conflict
  • Goals conflict with goals of others

Goal

incompatibility

Different values

and beliefs

  • Different beliefs due to unique background, experience, training
  • Caused by specialised tasks, careers
  • Explains misunderstanding in cross-cultural and merger relations

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

sources of conflict1

Pooled

Resource

A

B

C

Sequential

A

B

C

Reciprocal

A

B

C

Sources of conflict

Goal

incompatibility

Three levels of interdependence

Different values

and beliefs

Task

interdependence

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

sources of conflict2
Sources of conflict

Goal

Incompatibility

Different Values

and Beliefs

Task

Interdependence

Scarce

Resources

  • Increases competition for resources to fulfil goals

Ambiguity

  • Lack of rules guiding relations
  • Encourages political tactics

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

sources of conflict3
Sources of conflict

Goal

Incompatibility

Different Values

and Beliefs

  • Lack of opportunity
    • reliance on stereotypes
  • Lack of ability
    • arrogant communication heightens conflict perception
  • Lack of motivation
    • conflict causes lower motivation to communicate, increases stereotyping

Task

Interdependence

Scarce

Resources

Ambiguity

Communication

Problems

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

conflict mgt styles orientations
Conflict mgt styles: orientations
  • Win-win orientation
    • you believe parties will find a mutually beneficial solution to their disagreement
  • Win-lose orientation
    • you believe that the more one party receives, the less the other receives
    • tends to escalate conflict, use of power/politics

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

conflict management styles
Conflict management styles

High

Competing

Collaborating

Assertiveness

Compromising

Avoiding

Accommodating

High

Low

Cooperativeness

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

superordinate goals at tivoli systems
Superordinate goals at Tivoli Systems

The value of superordinate goals was apparent in a paper airplanes exercise at Tivoli Systems. Teams discovered that they succeeded by focusing on the organisation’s goals rather than fighting over conflicting goals between teams.

© Ed Lallo

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

emphasising superordinate goals
Emphasising superordinate goals
  • Emphasising common objectives rather than conflicting sub-goals
  • Reducing goal incompatibility and differentiation

© Ed Lallo

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

reducing differentiation
Reducing differentiation
  • Remove sources of different values and beliefs
  • Move employees around to different jobs, departments and regions
  • Other ways to reduce differentiation:
    • encourage generalist careers
    • common dress code and status
    • common work experiences

© Ed Lallo

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

improving communication understanding
Improving communication/understanding

Employees understand and appreciate each other’s views through communication

  • informal gatherings
  • formal dialogue sessions
  • teambuilding activities (such as drum circles, shown here)

© Gary Diggens/Toronto Star

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

other ways to manage conflict
Other ways to manage conflict
  • Reduce task interdependence
    • divide shared resources
    • combine tasks
    • use buffers
  • Increase resources
    • duplicate resources
  • Clarify rules and procedures
    • clarify resource distribution
    • change interdependence

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

bargaining zone model

Initial

Target

Resistance

Resistance

Target

Initial

Bargaining zone model

Your positions

Area of

potential

agreement

Opponent’s positions

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

situational influences on negotiation
Situational influences on negotiation
  • Location
  • Physical setting
  • Time investment and deadlines
  • Audience

© Corel Corp. With permission.

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

effective negotiator behaviours
Effective negotiator behaviours
  • Plan and set goals
  • Gather information
  • Communicate effectively
  • Make appropriate concessions

© Corel Corp. With permission.

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

third party objectives
Third-party objectives

Procedural

fairness

Efficiency

Third-party

conflict resolution

objectives

Outcome

fairness

Effectiveness

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

types of third party intervention
Types of third-party intervention

High

Mediation

Inquisition

Level of

process control

Arbitration

Low

Level of outcome control

High

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione

overview of the next chapter
Overview of the next chapter
  • Competencies of effective leaders
  • Behavioural perspective of leadership
  • Path-goal theory of leadership
  • Elements of transformational leadership
  • Why people inflate the importance of leadership
  • Gender differences in leadership

 2003 McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd PPTs t/a Organisational Behaviour on the Pacific Rim by McShane and Travaglione