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Honor Killings Sarah Gladstone
One Girl’s Story Du’aAswad, 17, lives in Kurdish (northern Iraq) She fell in love with a boy and they were seen together at night (not clear if they actually had sex) People assumed they slept together It is illegal in Iraqi Kurdistan to perform honor killings, but the police just watched She was beaten and stoned to death (Kristof 28)
What are Honor Killings? The woman doesn’t stay in the house all the time (Kamguian 128) remarrying, (Kamguian 128) marrying without permission from family, (Kamguian 128) not wearing a veil in public, (Kamguian 128) having sex before married, (Kamguian127) being raped, (Kamguian127) not giving food to family fast enough, (Kamguian127) Divorce (Kamguian127) Family kills them: beat, burn, stone, shot, strangled, poisoned, beheaded, stabbed (Kamguian 128) Even if it is just a suspicion she can be killed (Kamguian 128)
Why are honor killings performed? The men “own” the women and the woman’s actions impact the men (Tripathi 2) The women are submissive to the men and are often killed by the men in their families (Tripathi 5) It ruins the honor of the whole family (the tribe, the men) (Welchman)
Islamic law as incentive The Shari’a deals with punishment for women including punishments about a woman having sex with someone other than who she is married to (Kamguian 130-131) The Koran allows it and men feel they are following their Islamic laws (Tripathi 1-2) Communities support and encourage honor killings so they do not go against the Shari’a and ruin the given roles of husband and wife (Kamguian130-131) “eib” (shame) and “sharaf” (honor) is taught to girls in school where are taught they must not have sex before they are married(Kamguian 129) Religion is being incorporated into the law more (Islamists don’t want a separation of state and religion) (Kamguian131) Qisas and Diyat deal with law and the body and allow/help the men get off easier (Tripathi 5)
Islamic law as excuse Men use the Koran as a way out of punishment (it allows them to kill a woman if they sleep with someone else) (Kamguian129-130) They get off with “crimes of honor” instead of murder (Kamguian129-130) The law is lenient toward the men (not women) (Kamguian129-130) Partial defense: if a woman has sex with another man it allows the men to kill them. It is because they are angry or passionate and do it in the name of honor (this allows them to get off easier) (Welchman)
Islamic law excerpts “As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them, refuse to share their beds, beat them.” Koran, chapter 4, verse 34 (Kamguian129-130)) “If a man takes a wife and, after lying with her, dislikes her and slanders her and gives her a bad name, saying ‘I married this woman, but when I approached her, I did not find proof of her virginity,’ then the girls father and mother…shall display the cloth[that the couple slept on]before the elders of the town…if, however, the charge is true and no proof of the girl’s virginity can be found, she shall be brought to the door of her father’s house and there the men of her town shall stone her to death.” Deuteronomy 22:13-21 (Kristof 81)
Who performs honor killings? Mostly men: dad, brother, son, husband (Tripathi 5) Human Rights Commission of Pakistan: 462 honor killings were found in 1998-2002 and 395 of those were performed by husbands, 217 were family, 103 were dads, 60 were from people who knew the woman, 58 sons, and 44 were unknown(Tripathi 5)
Where do honor killings occur? Middle East: Jordan, Palistine, Israel, Lebanon, Egypt, Turkey, Iraqi Kurdistan (Welchman) It occurs in western countries where there are Muslim communities(Kamguian127) In Europe with there are communities of Muslim immigrants and they are allowed to perform honor killings in order to accept other cultures. It is seen as “Islamophobia” to go against the traditions of others (Kamguian132)
Statistics United Nations Population Fund said 5000 a year but so few are reported that it is closer to 6000 (Kristof 82) Egypt 1998-2001 79% were killed because of rumors (Kamguian128) “UN statistics for 1997 show: Yemen 400, Pakistan over 1000, Egypt 52, and Jordan 25-35” (Kamguian128) Modern Islamic world girls are getting more education and are starting to rebel which is causing more honor killings (Kamguian131)
Reforms Organizations in the Middle East are working to educate and advocate for women (Welchman) Work on changing the law(Welchman) European government: helping immigrants by providing housing for girls in need (Tripathi 6) Sweden: even non-Swedish citizens in the country can’t marry before 18 (Tripathi 6) UK: work against “forced marriage” and educate police about it (Tripathi 6) Penal code in Turkey: (2006) make all the men responsible and give women more rights (Tripathi 6) UN General Assembly is working to help (Tripathi 6)
Bibliography Kamguian, Azam. Islam. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004. Print. Opposing Viewpoints. Kristof, Nicholas D., and Sheryl WuDunn. Half the Sky Turning Oppression into Opportunity for Women Worldwide. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2009. Print. Tripathi, Anushree, and SupriyaYadav. "For the Sake of Honour: But Whose Honour? 'Honour Crimes' Against Women." Asia-Pacific Journal on Human Rights and the Law 2 (2004): 63-78. Print. Welchman, Lynn. "Crimes of Honor." Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa. New York: Macmillan, 2014. N. pag. World History in Context. Web. 3 Mar. 2014. <http://ic.galegroup.com/ic/whic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=WHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&u=mlin_m_brookhs&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&displayGroups=&sortBy=&source=&search_within_results=&p=WHIC%3AUHIC&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CCX3424600736>.