Chapter 12 Leaders and Leadership. Aug. 29 and 30. What is Leadership?. Exerting influence Involves positive affect, persuasion and motivating others Helping a group achieve its goals In organizations, outcome is an important test of leadership effectiveness
Chapter 12Leaders and Leadership Aug. 29 and 30
What is Leadership? • Exerting influence • Involves positive affect, persuasion and motivating others • Helping a group achieve its goals • In organizations, outcome is an important test of leadership effectiveness • Leadership is a goal oriented process
Leadership • Leaders are individuals who exert influence to help meet group goals • Formal: given formal authourity • Informal: no formal authority but uses norms and tacit powers to influence • Leader effectiveness is the extent to which a leader actually does help • Outcome is not the mere result of rules, procedures and external conditions
Intelligence Task-relevant knowledge Dominance Self-confidence Energy/activity levels Tolerance for stress Integrity and honesty Emotional maturity The Leader Trait Approach Findings on leader traits not consistent and can be affected by cultural biases. Ignores role of situation.
The Leader Behavior Approach Consideration: employee-centered Initiating Structure: task/job orientation
The Behavior Approach Leader Punishing Behavior Leader Reward Behavior Classic use of operant conditioning. Important instruments of influence and involves use of power.Practical application is in design of HRM practice: salary, bonus and incentive and disciplinary regulations. Must be clear behaviour that leader wants to influence.
Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership • Trait and Behaviour approach describes features of leaders • Marks a shift in the thinking of leadership • Recognizes that different conditions require different leadership styles • Leadership effectiveness determined by • The characteristic of individuals • The situations in which they find themselves • Distinct leader styles • Relationship-oriented • Task-oriented
Relationship-oriented Wants to be liked by and to get along well with subordinates Getting job done is second priority Task-oriented Wants high performance and accomplishment of all tasks Getting job done is first priority Table 2.2 Fiedler’s Contingency Theory of Leadership Choice of effective leadership style determined by situation faced by work group.
Measuring Leader Style • Fiedler develop a method for assessing a leader’s dominant leadership style • Least preferred co-employee scale • Positive description of LPC = relationship-oriented • Negative description of LPC = task-oriented
Situational Characteristics • Leader-Member Relations: quality of relationship and is reflective of trust and loyalty. • Task Structure: extent work is clearly defines, with established procedures and routines. • Position Power: extent of authority and ability to use reward and punishment.
Figure 12.2 Task -oriented Task-oriented Relationship-oriented
Contemporary Perspectives on Leadership • Path-Goal Theory • Vroom and Yetton Model • Leader-Member Exchange Theory
Path-Goal Theory A theory which describes how leaders can motivate their followers to achieve group and organizational goals and the kinds of behaviors leaders can engage in to motivate followers.
Guidelines for Path-Goal Theory • This theory links organizational and individuals’ need • Determine what outcomes subordinates are trying to obtain in the workplace • Reward subordinates for performing at a high level or achieving their work goals by giving them desired outcomes • Make sure subordinates believe that they can obtain their work goals and perform at a high level • This theory integrates our understanding of motivation: • Understand need, reinforce fairly and create high expectancy
Path-Goal Theory: Types of Behaviors • Directive behavior: structure task performance • Supportive behavior: concern for well-being • Participative behavior: get involvement • Achievement-oriented behavior: provide challenge • Choice of leadership style affected by: • Nature of subordinates • Nature of work • Leadership style also changes with same subordinates
Vroom and Yetton Model Autocratic Consultative Group Delegated
Criteria for Decision-Making Style • Nature of the tasks • Level of task interdependence • Output being produced • Characteristics of the employees
Vroom & Yetton, and later Vroom & Jago found the following questions helpful in the sequence below: Quality Requirement (QR): How important is the technical quality of the decision? Commitment Requirement (CR): How important is subordinate commitment to the decision? Leader's Information (LI): Do you (the leader) have sufficient information to make a high quality decision on your own? Problem Structure (ST): Is the problem well structured (e.g., defined, clear, organized, lend itself to solution, time limited, etc.)? Commitment Probability (CP): If you were to make the decision by yourself, is it reasonably certain that your subordinates would be committed to the decision? Goal Congruence (GC): Do subordinates share the organizational goals to be attained in solving the problem? Subordinate conflict (CO): Is conflict among subordinates over preferred solutions likely? Subordinate information (SI): Do subordinates have sufficient information to make a high quality decision?
Figure 12.3Leader-Member Exchange Theory Dyad 2 Dyad 1 Dyadic relationship develops because of variation in follower performance and leader’s limited resources (time, attention and trust)
Implication of LME • The theory proposes that each dyad develops a unique relationship that stems from unfolding interactions between the leader and the follower. • Commitment tend to be higher among those in the dyad. Implies that leading also requires recognizing variation in follower capabilities and cultivating a relationship with them • Hi quality relationship lead to subordinates willingness to engage in extra-role behaviour • Effort and dilligence • External resources and network
Leadership Substitutes and Neutralizers • Characteristics of the subordinate: • Level of self-motivation • Characteristics of the work: • Inherent nature of the work done • Frequency of interaction • Characteristics of the group: • Level of self management • Characteristics of the organization • Degree of flexibility and discretion given to leaders
New Topics in Leadership Research • Transformational and Charismatic Leadership • Transactional Leadership: • high reliance on use of reward and punishment. More task oriented • Leader Mood • Mood and motivation • Role of humour • Gender and Leadership • Mixed findings when comparison goes beyond US
Leader Has charisma is intellectually stimulating engages in developmental consideration Follower Is aware of task importance Is aware of need for growth Is motivated to perform Figure 12.4 Transformational Leadership
Characteristics of Transformational Leadership Charisma: ability to mtvt ppl towards a new future state Transformational Leader Developmental Consideration Intellectual Stimulation