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Ethics in Asia: The Confucian Way of Life. Sessions 21 and 22. I. Introduction:. II. Confucius: A Brief Traditional History.

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Ethics in Asia:

The Confucian Way of Life

Sessions 21 and 22

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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • Confucius was born in China in approximately 551 B.C. to a formerly noble but poor family. His father died when he was three and his mother (who raised him) died when he was 23.
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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • Confucius was born in China in approximately 551 B.C. to a formerly noble but poor family. His father died when he was three and his mother (who raised him) died when he was 23.
  • He lived during a period where China was having many tribal conflicts and wars.
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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • He married, had two children, and became the Justice Minister of the Lu province before embarking on an itinerate teaching ministry.
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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • He married, had two children, and became the Justice Minister of the Lu province before embarking on an itinerate teaching ministry.
  • He founded the Ru school of Chinese thought and left a number of followers behind by the time of his death at age 72 or 73.
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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • Important Developments in Confucianism after Confucius:
    • Mencius (4th Century BC)
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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • Important Developments in Confucianism after Confucius:
    • Mencius (4th Century BC)
    • Xun-zi (3rd Century BC)
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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • Important Developments in Confucianism after Confucius:
    • The Key Difference between the Two: The Basic Nature of Human Beings
      • Mencius taught that human beings are intrinsically good. Thus, moral training was an encouragement of what was already found within us.
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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • Important Developments in Confucianism after Confucius:
    • The Key Difference between the Two: The Basic Nature of Human Beings
      • Mencius taught that human beings are intrinsically good. Thus, moral training was an encouragement of what was already found within us.
      • Xun-zi taught that human beings are basically evil and must be consciously trained to be good, especially through regular rituals, constant self-improvement, and the upholding of tradition.
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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • Important Developments in Confucianism after Confucius:
    • The Han dynasty, which began in 206 BC, was the first to mandate widespread education in the Confucian way of life.
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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • Important Developments in Confucianism after Confucius:
    • The Han dynasty, which began in 206 BC, was the first to mandate widespread education in the Confucian way of life.
    • Ban Zhao (45-114 AD)
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II. Confucius:A Brief Traditional History
  • Important Developments in Confucianism after Confucius:
    • The Han dynasty, which began in 206 BC, was the first to mandate widespread education in the Confucian way of life.
    • Ban Zhao (45-114 AD)
    • Through time, Confucianism also spread to Japan, Korea, and Vietnam
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III. Five Constant Virtues
  • Rén: “Humanness” or “Goodness” or “Selflessness” Involving:
    • Courtesy in Private Life
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III. Five Constant Virtues
  • Rén: “Humanness” or “Goodness” or “Selflessness” Involving:
    • Courtesy in Private Life
    • Diligence in Public Life
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III. Five Constant Virtues
  • Rén: “Humanness” or “Goodness” or “Selflessness” Involving:
    • Courtesy in Private Life
    • Diligence in Public Life
    • Loyalty in Relationships
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III. Five Constant Virtues
  • Lĭ: “Ritual” or “Ceremony” or “Rites” or “Courtesy”
    • Rituals are not necessarily regimented or arbitrary practices. They are the everyday routines that people often engage in (consciously and/or unconsciously), throughout the normal course of their lives.
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III. Five Constant Virtues
  • Lĭ: “Ritual” or “Ceremony” or “Rites” or “Courtesy”
    • Ritual helps people know their proper place in society, minimizing unnecessary conflict and promoting social harmony.
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III. Five Constant Virtues
  • Lĭ: “Ritual” or “Ceremony” or “Rites” or “Courtesy”
    • Ritual helps people know their proper place in society, minimizing unnecessary conflict and promoting social harmony.
    • Ritual performed sincerely powerfully cultivates personal goodness.
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III. Five Constant Virtues
  • Yì: “Righteousness”
    • Reciprocity (versus Self-interest) in Relationships
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III. Five Constant Virtues
  • Yì: “Righteousness”
    • Reciprocity (versus Self-interest) in Relationships
    • Doing the Right Thing for the Right Reason
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III. Five Constant Virtues
  • Zhi: “Knowledge” or “Wisdom”
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III. Five Constant Virtues
  • Zhi: “Knowledge” or “Wisdom”
  • Xin: “Integrity” or “Faithfulness”
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IV. Other Important Teachings
  • The Principle of Reciprocity in Interpersonal Relationships
    • The Golden Rule (Positive): “What one recognizes as desirable for oneself, one ought to be willing to grant to others.”
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IV. Other Important Teachings
  • The Principle of Reciprocity in Interpersonal Relationships
    • The Golden Rule (Positive): “What one recognizes as desirable for oneself, one ought to be willing to grant to others.”
    • The Silver Rule (Negative): “What you do not wish for yourself, do not do to others.
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IV. Other Important Teachings
  • The Doctrine of the Golden Mean
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IV. Other Important Teachings
  • The Doctrine of the Golden Mean
  • Central Values
    • Loyalty
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IV. Other Important Teachings
  • The Doctrine of the Golden Mean
  • Central Values
    • Loyalty
    • Filial Piety
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IV. Other Important Teachings
  • The Doctrine of the Golden Mean
  • Central Values
    • Loyalty
    • Filial Piety
    • Social Harmony
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IV. Other Important Teachings
  • The Doctrine of the Golden Mean
  • Central Values
    • Loyalty
    • Filial Piety
    • Social Harmony
    • Humanistic Secularity
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V. Educational andPolitical Ideals
  • Moral Excellence in Education
    • Because virtue is not natural, it must be intentionally and thoughtfully inculcated within the person and the society.
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V. Educational andPolitical Ideals
  • Moral Excellence in Education
    • Because virtue is not natural, it must be intentionally and thoughtfully inculcated within the person and the society.
    • Education was never an end in itself but was always intended to result in the person becoming more virtuous, wise, and socially astute.
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V. Educational andPolitical Ideals
  • Moral Excellence in Education
    • The goal is to not violate, but rather follow the way (tao) so that you can become a person of increasing goodness, propriety, wisdom, and integrity.
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V. Educational andPolitical Ideals
  • Moral Excellence in Education
    • The goal is to not violate, but rather follow the way (tao) so that you can become a person of increasing goodness, propriety, wisdom, and integrity.
    • The means to accomplish this involves not only information, but also poetry, music, and great literature.
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V. Educational andPolitical Ideals
  • Good Governance
    • The best government is one that rules through “rites” (lǐ) and appeals to people’s natural morality, rather than using debased means of persuasion like bribery and coercion.
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V. Educational andPolitical Ideals
  • Good Governance
    • The best government is one that rules through “rites” (lǐ) and appeals to people’s natural morality, rather than using debased means of persuasion like bribery and coercion.
    • Earned Virtuous Leadership versus a Leadership of Lineage.
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V. Educational andPolitical Ideals
  • Good Governance
    • Social Relationships, Appropriate Virtue, and the Concept of Shame
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V. Educational andPolitical Ideals
  • Good Governance
    • Social Relationships, Appropriate Virtue, and the Concept of Shame
    • The ruler is called first to be good before expecting his subjects to be good
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V. Educational andPolitical Ideals
  • Good Governance
    • Social Relationships, Appropriate Virtue, and the Concept of Shame
    • The ruler is called first to be good before expecting his subjects to be good
    • The great overarching goal is to experience peace and harmony in each and every social relationship
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The gentleman is first and foremost loyal and faithful, unafraid to correct character flaws and personal mistakes. Thus, the main concern for the gentleman is self-improvement.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The Nine Cares of a Gentleman
      • To See Clearly
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The Nine Cares of a Gentleman
      • To See Clearly
      • To Hear Distinctly
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The Nine Cares of a Gentleman
      • To See Clearly
      • To Hear Distinctly
      • To Be Kind
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The Nine Cares of a Gentleman
      • To See Clearly
      • To Hear Distinctly
      • To Be Kind
      • To Be Respectful
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The Nine Cares of a Gentleman
      • To See Clearly
      • To Hear Distinctly
      • To Be Kind
      • To Be Respectful
      • To Be Sincere
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The Nine Cares of a Gentleman
      • To See Clearly
      • To Hear Distinctly
      • To Be Kind
      • To Be Respectful
      • To Be Sincere
      • To Be Diligent
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The Nine Cares of a Gentleman
      • To Get Help When Necessary
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The Nine Cares of a Gentleman
      • To Get Help When Necessary
      • To Carefully Weigh the Consequences When Angry
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The Nine Cares of a Gentleman
      • To Get Help When Necessary
      • To Carefully Weigh the Consequences When Angry
      • To Consider if Some Course of Action Is Right or Not When Given an Opportunity for Personal Gain
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • A gentleman is a superior (versus an inferior—literally, “small”) person.
      • The superior person sets his heart on virtue, the inferior person on comfort.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • A gentleman is a superior (versus an inferior—literally, “small”) person.
      • The superior person sets his heart on virtue, the inferior person on comfort.
      • The superior person is thoughtfully unbiased, the inferior person shows favoritism.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • A gentleman is a superior (versus an inferior—literally, “small”) person.
      • The superior person sets his heart on virtue, the inferior person on comfort.
      • The superior person is thoughtfully unbiased, the inferior person shows favoritism.
      • The superior person calls attention to the good points in others; the inferior person points out their defects.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • A gentleman is a superior (versus an inferior—literally, “small”) person.
      • The superior person makes demands on himself, while the inferior person makes them on others.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • A gentleman is a superior (versus an inferior—literally, “small”) person.
      • The superior person makes demands on himself, while the inferior person makes them on others.
      • The superior person can influence those above them, but the inferior only those below them.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • A gentleman is a superior (versus an inferior—literally, “small”) person.
      • The superior person makes demands on himself, while the inferior person makes them on others.
      • The superior person can influence those above them, but the inferior only those below them.
      • The superior person is calm and at ease, while the inferior person frets and is ill at ease.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • A gentleman is a superior (versus an inferior—literally, “small”) person.
      • The superior person is dignified but not proud; the inferior person is proud but not dignified.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The gentleman thinks of the way (tao) and its progress, not how he is going to make a living.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The gentleman thinks of the way (tao) and its progress, not how he is going to make a living.
    • A gentleman considers justice essential, practices propriety, and is modest.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • Zhun-zi: The Confucian “Gentleman”
    • The gentleman thinks of the way (tao) and its progress, not how he is going to make a living.
    • A gentleman considers justice essential, practices propriety, and is modest.
    • A gentleman acts before he speaks and then speaks according to his action with integrity.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • The “Perfect Man” combines the qualities of a saint, scholar, and gentleman.
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • The “Perfect Man” combines the qualities of a saint, scholar, and gentleman.
  • The Five Bonds
    • Ruler to Ruled
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • The “Perfect Man” combines the qualities of a saint, scholar, and gentleman.
  • The Five Bonds
    • Ruler to Ruled
    • Father to Son
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • The “Perfect Man” combines the qualities of a saint, scholar, and gentleman.
  • The Five Bonds
    • Ruler to Ruled
    • Father to Son
    • Husband to Wife
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • The “Perfect Man” combines the qualities of a saint, scholar, and gentleman.
  • The Five Bonds
    • Ruler to Ruled
    • Father to Son
    • Husband to Wife
    • Elder Brother to Younger Brother
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VI. Relational andSocial Ideals
  • The “Perfect Man” combines the qualities of a saint, scholar, and gentleman.
  • The Five Bonds
    • Friend to Friend
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