Prophecy and Rebellion - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Prophecy and Rebellion

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  1. Prophecy and Rebellion Islamic World and Africa Taiping Rebellion in China 1800-1900

  2. Domination by Europeans • 19th century witnesses an acceleration of European influence around the globe • Industrial capitalism (steam power, mass production) and centralized modern states (fuelled by nationalism and imperialism) make this possible • The search for raw materials to fuel production and markets to sell manufactured goods disrupts the existing order even in places far removed from Europe

  3. Return to roots in Islam • The declining fortunes of the Muslim empires leads to fears among some religious leaders that Islam is in trouble • The way to turn the tide, argued some religious leaders, was to return to the root teachings of Mohammed • The problems, they argued, were a result of straying from the core of Islamic faith

  4. Wahhabism • Founded by Muhammad Ibn abd al-Wahhib (1703-1792) on the Arabian peninsula (modern-day Saudi Arabia) • Argued that every idea added to Islam after the third century of the Muslim era (around 900 CE) should be abolished • The wave of religious fundamentalism posed a threat to the Ottomans as it spread under the support of the House of Saud – who sought to push the Ottomans of the Arabian peninsula

  5. Inspired by the zeal of Wahhabism, the House of Saud overran Mecca and Medina in 1803. An Egyptian army drove them out, but Wahhabism continued to draw supporters from across the Muslim World. It can be seen as the origins of Islamic fundamentalism today.

  6. West Africa • The Fulani people, mostly nomadic cattle herders, fueled an Islamic revival in present-day Nigeria • Led by the cleric Usman Dan Fodio (1754-1817) , an adherent of Sufiism, eventually created a vast empire known as the Sokoto Caliphate • He had a series of religious visions which urged him on a jihad against the enemies of Islam in West Africa

  7. Southern Africa • The first three decades of the 19th century witnessed widespread chaos known as the Mfecane (a term disputed by J. Cobbing) • The introduction of maize (corn) to the are meant standing armies could be formed because fewer people were needed to farm – but they used more water • The main cause was overpopulation – which led to battles for land and water resources in the area

  8. Small communitiesto centralized kingdoms • The area was governed by local chiefs and councils – no central governments • Pressure for land and resources results in often violent seizures of land and displacement of peoples • New states began to spring up to consolidate authority over large territories – like the Swazi, Lesotho, Ndebele, and the Zulu state

  9. The strength of Shaka’s state was its military structure • A large, disciplined, and well trained army that continued to incorporate conquered peoples • Shaka had a charismatic style and did not shy away from using terror as a tactic

  10. Qing Dynasty in trouble • Before 1842, China had restricted trade with Europeans to the port of Canton (Guangzhou) • Under the Treaty of Nanjing (1842): • Hong Kong was ceded to Britain • four more ports were opened up to British trade • Britain was given favoured nation status • British missionaries were allowed into the interior of China

  11. Economic dislocation and rebellion • The Qing leadership faced social problems: • a rising population • Imports of opium were rising each year • Regional economic shifts as Europeans set up new bases • A long tradition of peasant uprisings inspired by religious and millenarian visions and prophecies

  12. Hong Xuiquan (1813-1864) • A failed student – he mixed traditional Chinese prophetic elements with Christianity to lead a millenarian movement • Directed his wrath against the Qing Dynasty rather than the Europeans

  13. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom • Based on Hong’s vision interpreted through his reading of a Christian text • It invited followers to usher in an egalitarian and just society – the Heavenly Kingdom • The group drew hundreds of thousands of followers who were eager for an alternative to their present hopeless situation – mostly from the labouring classes

  14. The Heavenly Kingdom’s rules • Civil service exam now based on the Bible, not confucian texts • State ownership and distribution of land • Equality for women – they could write civil service exam and serve in the army • Foot binding banned • Restrictions on consumption of alcohol, opium, polygamy, prostitution and slavery

  15. The Taiping Rebellion (1851-1864) • The rebellion spread’s very quickly over a large area of Southern China • Rebels gain control of the city of Nanjing – turn it it into the Heavenly Kingdom • Control of the Yangtzi River allows them to keep supplies moving over large area • 20 million civilians and military personnel were killed

  16. Suppressing the rebellion • The rebellion was put down in 1864 by combined force of Chinese and European forces • With large parts of southern China laying in waste, and their power eroding to the gentry who had fought off the rebels, the Qing were in a tough position • They would face further trouble as the 19th century wore on

  17. Conclusion • Alternative visions in these areas tended to be focused on internal issues rather than direct confrontation with Europeans • They were fueled by visions of a world that mixed prophecy with an impulse to restore an old order (whether real or imagined) in order to deal with the shocks of change in the global order