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An Introduction to Rhetoric : Using the “Available Means” PowerPoint Presentation
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An Introduction to Rhetoric : Using the “Available Means”

An Introduction to Rhetoric : Using the “Available Means”

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An Introduction to Rhetoric : Using the “Available Means”

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  1. An Introduction to Rhetoric: Using the “Available Means” Chapter 1

  2. Assignment • Follow along with your Cornell Notes. • Topic/Objective: Chapter 1 – Rhetoric • You will complete the Notes (right side)in class. • You will complete the Questions/Main Idea (left side)for homework. • Cornell Notes on Chapter 1 will be due on Tuesday, August 23, 2011.

  3. Key Elements of Rhetoric • Nowadays, the word “rhetoric” is often used to signal deception. • Rhetoric means the effective use of language to communicate an idea. • Rhetoric can serve sincerity (as in Lou Gehrig’s speech) as well as trickery.

  4. Key Elements of Rhetoric (Continued) Rhetoric is always situational: it always has a context and a purpose. • Context: the occasion, time, place it was written or spoken • Purpose: goal that the speaker or writer wants to achieve.

  5. Key Elements of Rhetoric (Continued) • Context? • Purpose?

  6. Key Elements of Rhetoric (Continued) • Context of Lou Gehrig’s speech is the emotional contrast between the celebration of his athletic career and his life-threatening diagnosis. • Purpose of Lou Gehrig’s speech is to remain positive and downplay his “bad break.”

  7. Key Elements of Rhetoric (Continued) • Context and purposeare essential to analyzing effective rhetoric. • First, consider the context: The occasion, time, and place • Then, consider the purpose: What is the speaker’s goal in this communication?

  8. Key Elements of Rhetoric (continued) • Remember that sometimes context arises from current events or cultural bias.

  9. The Rhetorical Triangle Speaker PURPOSE AUDIENCE SUBJECT

  10. The Rhetorical Triangle • Audience: • How do they feel about the subject? • How does the writer expect them to respond to their topic? • Purpose: • Does the writer propose something? • Does the writer convey specific information? • Does the writer convince you of something? • Does the writer try to sell something? • Author: • Who is the author? • What do you know about the author? • Is he/she trustworthy? Why? • What else has he/she written on the subject? • Audience: • Who is my audience? What do they mean to me? • What is their interest in the subject? • What do they know about the subject?

  11. PersonaI ntentionGenreSubjctAudienceContext Analyzing a Text = Pigsacing a Text

  12. Pigsac • Persona • The voice that tells the story. The author and the speaker are NOT necessarily the same. An author may choose to tell the story from any number of different points of view (character or persona). • 3 Components • Tone • Diction • Logic

  13. Pigsac • Intention • The reason behind the text. The author/speaker’s GOAL in the communication. • Consider the purpose of the text in order to examine the argument and its logic. • “What does the speaker want the audience to think or do as a result of reading this text?”

  14. Pigsac • Intention (continued) • TONE • The attitude of the author toward the subject matter. With the written work, it is tone that extends meaning beyond the literal. • can be determined by examining the author’s diction (choice of words), syntax (word order), and imagery (vivid descriptions that appeal to the senses).

  15. Pigsac Intention (continued) TONE • amiable? • detached? • passionate? • zealous? • sardonic? • sincere? • matter-of-fact? • authoritative? • nostalgic? Is the author: • sincere? • matter-of-fact? • authoritative? • nostalgic? • condescending? • insolent? • angry? • condescending? • insolent? • angry?

  16. Pigsac Intention (continued) TONE Is the Speaker: • Trying to win agreement? • Persuade us to take action? • Evoke sympathy? • Make us laugh? • Inform? • Does the Speaker • Provoke? • Celebrate? • Repudiate? • Put forth a proposal? • Secure support? • Bring about a favorable decision?

  17. Pigsac • Genre • The type of writing. Also called modes: • Creative/Expressive • Descriptive • Expository/Informative • Narrative • Argumentative • Business • Comparison/Contrast • Literary Response • Technical

  18. Pigsac Subject The general topic, content, and ideas contained in the text; the main idea.

  19. Pigsac Audience The audience may be one person, a small group, or a large group; it may be a certain person or a certain people.

  20. Appeals: How to Persuade • Ethos • Appeals to a sense of character, credibility, authority • The writer makes a good impression. • The reader believes the writer knows what he or she is talking about. • The speaker’s ethos is his expertise, • knowledge experience, training, • sincerity, or a combination.

  21. Appeals: How to Persuade Logos Appeals to reason and sense of logic • Solid facts • Sound argument • Acknowledge the counterargument • Concession and refutation

  22. Appeals: How to Persuade Pathos Appeals to emotion • Figurative language • Personal Anecdote • First Person • Strong • Connotations

  23. Fallacies Attractive but unreliable pieces of reasoning. FAKE and PLASTIC.

  24. The Flaw of Fallacies • Relying too heavily on ethos (such as celebrity endorsement) without corroborating logos, can be a fallacy. • Relying too much on emotion without corroborating logos, can be a fallacy.

  25. Assignment • Pg. 9 • Due Tuesday, August 23, 2011

  26. Assignment • Follow along with your Cornell Notes. • Topic/Objective: Chapter 1 – Rhetoric • You will complete the Notes (right side)in class. • You will complete the Questions/Main Idea (left side)for homework. • Cornell Notes on Chapter 1 will be due on Thursday, August 25, 2011.

  27. Visual Rhetoric: Editorial Cartoons uses images to create meaning or construct an argument.

  28. Visual Rhetoric: Editorial Cartoons uses images to create meaning or construct an argument.

  29. Visual Rhetoric: Organization of an essay • Classic arrangement: • Introduction: draws the reader in • Narration: facts and background • Confirmation: main part developing the proof • Refutation: addresses the counterargument • Conclusion: appeal to pathos, reminds reader of ethos established earlier. Answers the question, “so what?”

  30. Visual Rhetoric: Organization of an essay • Modern Patterns of Development: • Narration: Telling a story or recounting a series of events • Description: emphasizes the senses by painting a picture (activates the 5 senses) • Process Analysis: Explains how something works or how to do something • Exemplification: Facts, specific cases or instances; turns a general idea into a more concrete one. • Comparison and Contrast: Highlighting similarities and differences • Classification and Division: Sorting of ideas • Definition: Defining a term as the basis of an argument

  31. Assignment • Pg. 12 Assignment • Pg. 26. Assignment • Review for quiz (review “assignment”) on pg. 28 • Due Thursday, August 25, 2011