On the VariousMeans of COMMUNICATING OUR THOUGHTS
Diversity of Communication • What means of communication do you know?
Different Means of Communication • Letters, postcards, notes • Telephone – call, SMS, MMS • Fax, telex • Internet – chat, e-mail • Videoconference • Face to face conversation • Body language • Symbols
Para.1-3 • Language is a special human faculty. • Means of communicating one’s feelings and thoughts derive from the senses.
Para. 3 • The means are restricted to: movement----non-verbal voice----verbal
In communication with others only 30 % of the communication is verbal, 70 % is non-verbal.
Para.4-9 • communication through movement • The language of gesture is easier. • Eyes process information faster.
Gestures and body language communicate as effectively as words- maybe even more effectively. We use gestures daily, almost instinctively, from beckoning to a waiter to punctuating a business presentation with visual signals.
Come here,baby! Give me money! Hello,this is......
Non-verbal Communication • Facial expressions, eye contact, body posture and motions, and positioning within groups. • Shaking hands, touching, holding, embracing, pushing, or patting on the back all convey messages. • It may also include the way we wear our clothes or the silence we keep.
Clothing, hairstyle, make-up, body adornment, jewellery, tattoos, piercings, glasses, facial hair, accessories such as bags. • You only have to think of the huge industries associated with the above examples to recognise the cultural significance of physical appearance • Many societies had (and some still do have) highly regulated codes of dress, often linked to rank and status.
The non-verbal communication is more than just body language: Within organisations such as the army, positions within the hierarchy are clearly signalled by uniforms, badges and behavioural codes such as saluting. • In other organisations the non-verbal rules of the pecking order may not be so overt, but they are just as carefully observed.
These gestures are accepted both by Chinese and Americans as having the same meanings: • A smile and handshake show welcome , • Waving one‘s hand is to say “goodbye”, • nodding the head means agreement, while shaking it means disagreement .（some exceptions） • Putting up a hand means "May I ask a question?". • Kissing means "love". • Waving one's arms shows happiness.
There is some universality in non-verbal communication, especially in facial expressions.
What is non verbal communication? Posture Gestures Facial expression
Art of pantomime (Para. 6) • A silent form of the drama in which the story is developed by movement, gesture, facial expression, and stage properties. It is known to have existed among the Chinese, Persians, Hebrews, and Egyptians and has been observed in many other cultures. • One of the oldest arts of the theatre: in ancient Greece, the pantomime was the actor and also his performance when he translated into gesture or movement the thought which the chorus was expressing. • Now it is a form of musical comedy stage production, designed for families, developed in the United Kingdom and mostly performed during the Christmas and New Year season.
Vocabulary：discourse [U] (linguistics 语言) the use of language in speech and writing in order to produce meaning; language that is studied, usually in order to see how the different parts of a text are connected 语篇；话语 spoken/written discourse口头/书面语篇 discourse analysis 语篇分析 Their discourse, witty, pithy, original, had such charms for me. 她们的谈话又机智，又精辟，又有独特见解，对我有很大魅力。
Vocabulary: lop off • PHRASAL VERB （通常指快而狠地）砍下，剪去，截掉 If you lop something off, you cut it away from what it was attached to, usually with a quick, strong stroke. • e. g. He had to lopoff whole pages of the report. 他必须砍除报告的全部页数。 • Your article is too lengthy. Lopoff those repeated and empty words. 你的文章太冗长了。把那些重复的，空洞的话都删掉。
Vocabulary: poppy • N-COUNT 罂粟 A poppy is a plant with a large, delicate flower, usually red in colour. The drug opium is obtained from one type of poppy. • Poppies do not transplant well. 罂粟经不起移植。 • The folds of her scarlet silk gown gave off the enervating smell of poppies. 她那件大红绸袍的衣褶里发出销魂蚀骨的罂粟花香。 • Make it rich as a draught of poppies to intoxicate me. 就像一束盛开的罂粟使我麻醉。
Tarquin, or Thrasybulus lopping off poppies (Para.7) • [Periander] had sent a herald to Thrasybulus and inquired in what way he would best and most safely govern his city. Thrasybulus led the man who had come from Periander outside the town, and entered into a sown field. As he walked through the wheat, continually asking why the messenger had come to him from Cypselus, he kept cutting off all the tallest ears of wheat which he could see, and throwing them away, until he had destroyed the best and richest part of the crop. Then, after passing through the place and speaking no word of counsel, he sent the herald away. When the herald returned to Cypselus, Periander desired to hear what counsel he brought, but the man said that Thrasybulus had given him none. The herald added that it was a strange man to whom he had been sent, a madman and a destroyer of his own possessions, telling Periander what he had seen Thrasybulus do. Periander, however, understood what had been done, and perceived that Thrasybulus had counselled him to slay those of his townsmen who were outstanding in influence or ability; with that he began to deal with his citizens in an evil manner.
高罂粟综合症 • Tall poppy syndrome (TPS) is a pejerotive term primarily used in the UK, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and other Anglosphere nations to describe a social phenomenon in which people of genuine merit are resented, attacked, cut down, or criticised because their talents or achievements elevate them above or distinguish them from their peers.
Alexander the Great • Alexander III of Macedon:
Vocabulary: promenade • promenade [ˌprɒmə'nɑ:d] • VERB 散步 If someone promenades somewhere, for example along a beach, the edge of a lake, or a main street, they go for a walk there. • People came out in smarter clothes to promenade along the front. 人们穿上更加时髦漂亮的衣服，沿着海滨散步。
Diogenes and Zeno (Para. 7) • Greek philosopher and founder of cynic philosophy. • He believed that virtue was better revealed in action than in theory. He used his simple lifestyle and behaviour to criticise the social values and institutions of what he saw as a corrupt society.
Diogenes and Zeno (Para. 7) • Zeno is a Greek thinker from Citium. Diogenes relates a legend that Zeno was a merchant; after surviving a shipwreck, Zeno wandered into a bookshop in Athens and was attracted to some writings about Socrates. He asked the librarian how to find such a man. In response, the librarian pointed to Crates of Thebes, the most famous Cynic living at that time in Greece. • Zeno is described as a haggard, tanned person, living a spare, ascetic life. This coincides with the influences of Cynic teaching, and was, at least in part, continued in his Stoic philosophy.
Vocabulary：circumlocution • [U, C] (formal) using more words than are necessary, instead of speaking or writing in a clear, direct way 迂回曲折的说法 • He is a master at circumlocution. 他惯会兜圈子。 • This sort of ritual circumlocution is common to many parts of mathematics. 这种繁冗的遁辞常见于数学的许多部分分式中。 • It was always when you most wanted a direct answer that Greenfield came up with a circumlocution. 总是在你最想要一个直截了当的回答时，格林菲尔德会绕上十八个弯。
Scythia [ˈsiðiə] 锡西厄（古代欧洲东南部以黑海北岸为中心的一地区）an ancient area of Eurasia extending from the Black Sea to the Aral Sea that was populated by Scythians from the eighth to the fourth century BC
Vocabulary: herald N-COUNT 预兆 Something that is a herald of a future event or situation is a sign that it is going to happen or appear. I welcome the report as a herald of more freedom, not less.我认为这份报告预示着会有更多、而不是更少的自由，因此对它表示欢迎。 For her, it was the herald of summer. 对她来说，这是夏天来临的前奏。 N-COUNT （古时的）传令官，使节 In former times, a herald was a person who delivered and announced important messages.
Vocabulary： harangue [hə'ræŋ] • N-COUNT 慷慨激昂的劝说;喋喋不休的劝说 A harangue is a long, forceful speech that someone makes to try and persuade other people to accept their opinions. • Unfortunately, no questions from the audience broke the continuity of his harangue. 令人遗憾的是，没有听众提出问题来打断他的高谈阔论。 • We had to listen to a long harangue about our own shortcomings. 我们必须去听一有关我们缺点的长篇大论。
Darius 大流士（古波斯帝国国王） 大流士一世（Darius I the Great），波斯帝国君主（前522～前486）。出身于阿契美尼德家族支系。大流士随冈比西斯二世出征埃及，被任命为万人不死军的总指挥。大流士不仅是波斯帝国的伟大君主，也是世界历史上的著名政治家之一。 他自称为“王中之王，诸国之王”，后人尊称为“铁血大帝”。
Darius • The messenger said his duty was only to deliver them, and nothing more. • It was left to the Persian king to find out the meaning. • Darius concluded at first, that the Scythians thereby consented to deliver up the earth and water to him, which were represented by a mouse and a frog ; as also their cavalry, whose swiftness was represented by the bird ; together with their own persons and arms, signified by the arrows. • But Gobryas, one of the seven lords that had deposed the Magian impostor, expounded the enigma in the following manner: " Know," said he to the Persians, " that unless you can fly away in the air like birds, or hide yourselves in the earth like mice, or swim in the water like frogs, you shall in no wise be able to avoid the arrows of the Scythians. • The whole Persian army, marching in a vast uncultivated and barren country, in which there was no water, was reduced to so deplorable a condition that they finally evacuated.
Levite [ˈli:vait] • n. 利未人(Jacob之子利未的后裔) a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi (especially the branch that provided male assistants to the Temple priests) • Ephraim [ˈi:freiim] • n. 以色列民族 • And there was a man of mount Ephraim, whose name was Micah.以法莲山地有一个人名叫米迦。
Vocabulary：avenge VERB 报…之仇；雪…之耻 If you avenge a wrong or harmful act, you hurt or punish the person who is responsible for it. SYN: revenge He has devoted the past five years to avenging his daughter's death.他过去5年一心报丧女之仇。 She had decided to avenge herself and all the other women he had abused.她决定为自己和所有其他被他侮辱的女性报仇。 He swore to avenge himself on his enemy for the insult given to his name. 他的敌人侮辱他的名声，他发誓要报复。
Vocabulary：exterminiate VERB 消灭;灭绝;根除 To exterminate a group of people or animals means to kill all of them. SYN： kill off A huge effort was made to exterminate the rats.灭鼠花了很大力气。 Man is exterminating too many species for zoos to be much help. 人类正在导致过多物种灭绝，动物园也无济于事。 Hitler wanted to exterminate the Jews, Gypsies, Communists, and homosexuals of Europe.
Vocabulary：pleading N-UNCOUNT 恳求；请求；吁请 Pleading is asking someone for something you want very much, in an intense or emotional way. （also N in pl） (law) a statement in legal and logical form stating something on behalf of a party to a legal proceeding He simply ignored Sid's pleading. 他完全不理会锡德的恳求。 ...the pleadings of the poorer countries. 较贫穷国家的呼吁
Vocabulary： in jest 开玩笑地 Jest is a prank or an joke. It can also be an act. Jest is also a smart remark made by someone. Many a true word is spoken injest. 笑话之中有真话。 His reply was taken half seriously, half injest. 他的答覆看来是半开玩笑半认真的。
Vocabulary：drag out PHRASAL VERB 套…的话;说服…说出 If you drag something out of a person, you persuade them to tell you something that they do not want to tell you. The families soon discovered that every piece of information had to be dragged out of the authorities. 这些家庭很快发现每条消息都得从有关当局口中套出来。 But all we said, not a word could we dragout of him. 但是，随我们说千道万，都套不出他一句话来。
Biblical Story • The Battle of Gibeah is an episode in the Book of Judges 《士师记》. The battle was triggered by an incident of gross inhospitality on part of the Tribe of Benjamin, in which a concubine belonging to a man from the Tribe of Levi was raped to death by a rowdy mob. The Levite had offered his concubine to the mob in place of himself (whom the mob originally sought to "be intimate with"), and then locked the door for the night. In the morning the Levite found his dead concubine at the door, and butchered her into twelve pieces, and sent the pieces throughout all the territory of Israel. • The outraged tribes of Israel sought justice, and asked for the miscreants to be delivered for judgement. The Benjamites refused, so the tribes then sought vengeance, and in the subsequent war, the members of Tribe of Benjamin were systematically killed, including women and children; when Benjamin was nearly 'extinguished', it was decided that the tribe should be allowed to survive, and all the men from another town, Jabesh Gilead, that had refused to take part in the punishment of the Tribe of Benjamin, were killed, so that their daughters could be wed to the surviving men of Benjamin. The first king of Israel, Saul, descended from these men. Due to this war, the Tribe of Benjamin was subsequently referred to as "the smallest of all the tribes."[
King Saul 撒乌耳国王/扫罗王 扫罗，天主教译为撒乌耳，是以色列联合王国的第一位君主，亦标志着士师时代的结束。他是撒母耳因应以色列人要求有一位自己的君主的呼声，在向上帝请示过以后，根据上帝的“旨意”而膏立的。他的即位，亦是君权和神权之间权力斗争的开端。
King Saul • The son of Kish, of the tribe of Benjamin, the first king of the Israelites, anointed by Samuel, B. C. 1091, and after a reign of forty years filled with various events, slain with his sons on Mount Gilboa. He was succeeded by David, who was his son-in-law, and whom he had endeavored to put to death.
1 Samuel 11:5 Behold, Saul came following the oxen out of the field; and Saul said, "What ails the people that they weep?" They told him the words of the men of Jabesh. (WEB JPS ASV BBE DBY NAS RSV NIV) • 1 Samuel 11:7 He took a yoke of oxen, and cut them in pieces, and sent them throughout all the borders of Israel by the hand of messengers, saying, "Whoever doesn't come forth after Saul and after Samuel, so shall it be done to his oxen." The dread of Yahweh fell on the people, and they came out as one man.
Jabez [ˈdʒeibez] 雅比斯 n. [男子名] 来源于希伯来语，含义是“悲伤，或顶点”(sorrow, or height) 圣经人名“雅比斯”字意为“痛苦”，他属犹大支派，以敬畏神而著名。他祈求神的保佑，而他的祷告亦得蒙应允。
Athenaeum[ˌæθiˈni:əm] n.雅典娜神庙 Orator 1. N-COUNT （尤指能影响人们情感和信仰的）演说家，演讲家，雄辩家 An orator is someone who is skilled at making formal speeches, especially ones which affect people's feelings and beliefs. Lenin was the great orator of the Russian Revolution. 列宁是俄国革命时期伟大的演说家。
Vocabulary：courtesan N-COUNT (旧时伺候富人和有权势之人的)高级妓女 In former times, a courtesan was a woman who had sexual relationships with rich and powerful men for money. Thinkers and poets throughout the ages have offered the courtesan the oblation of their mercy. 各个时期的思想家和诗人都把仁慈的怜悯心奉献给娼家女子。
Vocabulary：eloquence n. 口才，辩才； 雄辩； 雄辩术； 修辞法 powerful and effective language I am afraid my eloquence did not avail against the facts. 恐怕我的雄辩也无补于事实了 He expressed his sentiments about the war with great eloquence. 他雄辩地表达了对那场战争的看法。 Wealth of words is not eloquence. 宏辞非雄辩。 Discretion in speech is more than eloquence. 出言慎重胜过口若悬河。