American Revolution By: chelsea Hoyle
The Stamp Act The Stamp Act was introduced to pay for the cost of the French and Indian war. It was the first direct tax on the American colonies. The colonists were infuriated because they felt they should be taxed only by their own government. The Sons of Liberty formed to oppose the Stamp Act and used violence and intimidation to fight against it. October 1765 representatives from the colonies met in New York and sent a petition to King George and Parliament asking for the Stamp Act to be repealed. The petition stated taxation without representation violated their basic rights. The colonist refused to use the stamps when the Stamp Act went into effect November 7 1765. American newspapers reacted to the Stamp Act with anger and predictions of the demise of journalism http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:O!_the_fatal_Stamp.jpg
Townshend Act In June 1767 English cut the British land taxes. They promised that they would tax the contests. They created a tax on goods the colonists imported. These taxes were used to pay the salaries of British colonial officials. These were very unpopular with the colonists. In October the colonists of Boston restarted the boycott of English items. In February 1768 a letter was written to oppose taxation without representation. This letter then got sent to all the American clones. The American colonists agreed to what the letter had to say. In July the Massachusetts govaner shut down the court because the legislature refused to agree to the letter. Boston and new York boycotted the British gods until the Townsend acts were repealed. In September the residence were warned and told to be ready in case the British attacked. British war ships arrived in Boston. In may gorge mason wrote some resolutions that got sent to the Virginia house of burgesses. These resolutions opposed taxation without representation and the British reaction to the letter. Virginia joined the boycott and finally though Townsend acts were repealed in march of 1770
The Boston Massacre On march 5th 1770 conflicts between the colonists and solders grew. The people of Boston decided t start throwing snowballs and rocks at the solders. British solders started firing rapidly and soon 5 colonists were killed. After this incident the British troops left Boston. They moved to a nearby island. Six of the troops were arrested and charged of murder and 2 of the solders were found guilty of manslaughter. After this the hate between the Americans and British increased The Bloody Massacre” engraving by Paul Revere. Note that this is not an accurate depiction of the event. http://www.ushistory.org/declaration/related/images/massacre.jpg
Boston Tea Party n 1773 the east India tea company that they couldn’t sell in England so to help the company parliament passes the tea act. It allowed them to sell tea to the colonies without paying taxes. The British did not think the colonists would be upset but they were because the east India company could sell tea easier. The colonists again became angry about taxation without representation. They restarted the boycott of tea and more colonies join in. Colonies decided to stop the east India tea company from docking their ships. The colonies met to discuss what to do about the east India company ships docked in the harbor. They decided to send them back to England without paying taxes But the governor of Massachusetts didn’t agree and wouldn’t unless they played the taxes. They hen decided to send men dressed as Indians on to the ship to dump the tea. When the tea washed up on shore the colonists crushed the tea leaves. Boston then refused to pay for the tea and this angered king George III. The king punished the colonies by creating the intolerable acts. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/media/uploads/2008/12/vc40.jpg
The Intolerable Acts The intolerable acts were passed in 1774 to punish colonists. The first one is that they closed the Boston harbor until the people payed for the tea. The second one is that the British soldiers could not be tried for any crime, this means they could pretty much do anything they wanted to. The next one is that they restricted Massachusetts to having only one town meeting per year. The fourth act was that the Canadian border was extended. Another one of the acts were that it required colonists to provide housing for the British troops. One last act they passed was that British could do pretty much what ever they wanted without consequences. These acts made the colonists really mad but the Boston port act helped bond the colonies. They also helped them bond because they joined together in boycotting of British goods. This prepared colonists for the war with the British.
The First Continental Congress All the colonies except one sent representatives for the first continental congress. They met in secret because they did not want the British to know. Joseph Galloway suggested they could figure out a way the colonies could have their freedom under British rule. Not many people agreed but they made a list of basic rights and a list of complaints to send to the king. This was like a school for American leaders. Benjamin franklin was in England and presenting the colonists demands to the British. The continental association was created and this was an agreement to stop all trade with Britain until they met their demands. The governor of Massachusetts started taking some war like steps and other colonies followed. They were ready to fight England. When the king heard the demands he replied with ” the die is now cast. The colonies must either submit or triumph.” Patrick Henry went to the Virginia convention and made a speech. From this speech the famous quote came. ” I know not what course others may take, but as for me, give me liberty or give me death.” First Continental Congress meeting http://www.kidport.com/reflib/usahistory/americanrevolution/Images/ContCongress2.gif
The battle of Lexington and concord After the first continental congress kin George III told the British tropes to use force when necessary to make sure British continued to rule the colonies. The colonists had gathered lots of weapons in concord. British troops were sent to concord to capture the weapons. They decided to first go through Lexington to get to concord. Early the next morning the British solders went to Lexington. When they got there they met with some armed men from the colonies. The British then shot 2 times and 18 of the colonies men were killed. After this the British went to concord hoping to find weapons. On their way back to Boston they got shot at by the colonies men. The British were caught between the sea and the colonies militia. 73 British were killed and 93 of the colonies men were killed. The British then decided that they would not use any more force against the colonists because of the amount of British troops that were killed. The battle of Lexington and concord was the beginning of the revolutionary war.
Battle of bunker hill This was the first major battle of the American revolutionary war. The British continued to send many British troops to Boston and this upset the people of the colonies. The British needed to fortify their position. Their plan was to take over Dorchester heights so they could watch over Boston harbor to protect them self from attack from sea. Soon the Americans found out about the British plans and decided to beat them there. The British then set off to bunker hill which was north of Boston. They ended up on breeds hill which was closer to the water. The British were surprised when they saw that the colonies men had already taken over breeds hill. The British began to attack from sea then later they attacked from land. The colony men were told not to shoot until they could see the weights of the British troops eyes. The first 2 times the British they were not successful but it was on the 3rd time that they were more successful. They were successful because the colony men ran out of gun powder. This frocked them to give up and the British took over breeds and bunker hill. In this battle 226 British solders were killed and 145 colony men died with 30 of them captured. The Americans lost some men but realized that the British lost more. The colonists then discovered that they may have a chance in winning the war. They got excited then became confident that they could beat the British in the war This is a mao that shows how the British and Americans lined up for battle of bunker hill http://www.historycentral.com/Revolt/MapBH.jpg
Common sense TThe colonies wanted to continue to negotiate with the British about the problem with taxation without representation. Thomas Paine wrote the common sense and it got published soon after. He wanted this to make the people think about what was really happening. He explained that the people must fight to get what is right. He wanted to show that fighting against the king and the British was the only way they would get what they needed, independence. hecdid not think the government should be controlling people who had no say in what was being done. The British who lived in England the many rights and had say in the taxes. The colonists had no rights and no say. This was the main topic of the common sense and this educated the world in many ways. A few months after it was published over 500,000 copies were sold. His arguments went right to the peoples hearts and gave the people more desire to fight for freedom. his is a copy of Thomas paine’s common sense http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4a/Commonsense.jpg/382px-Commonsense.jpg
Declaration of independence The people from the first continental congress agreed that they would meet again. Between the first and second continental congress meant things happened that increased the tensions between the colonies and the British. In the second continental congress a lot of debate about weather they should fight for independence or negotiate with the British. Common sense convinced many that there was no other option but to declare their independence. The colonists pushed the British out of Boston. Finally Richard Henry lee made a formal proposal to the king that America would become independent from England. The same day a 5 men commit was created to write a declaration of independence. The commit agreed that Thomas Jefferson was the best writer and they let him write it. Personal liberty was the basic theme but it also listed all their reasons for wanting to become independent. It was presented then debated on for expectance of it. On the first vote only 9 colonies agreed to it but later 12 of the 13 colonies agreed to it. The one that did not agree to it was new York but they agreed to move towards independence. On July 4th the declaration of independence was appointed in its final form. This is why Americans now celebrate thec4th of July.
Battle of Trenton General George Washington figured out a plan. His plan was to cross the Delaware river and go to Trenton. The weather was bad. There was sleet, hail and ice and the Delaware river was frozen. The British would not expect the colonists to attack in this weather s they did. They felt protected by the frozen river. Three groups of solders crossed the Delaware river at different times. When they all got there Washington led the army to attack the British. The colonies army poured Moe then 900 prisoner and took over Trenton. Later that nightie went towards Princeton and took the British by surprise. These 2 victories gave them hope to go on. They also got some ford and other equipment that would help them in the winter.
Second battle of Saratoga Colonists had the British wear them self down in smaller battles. They were ready for the British to attack. Their defence was very strong even against the strong British army. te British had no choice but t retreat to Saratoga. The British lost 600 men but the coolness only lost 150 men. This meant tebrtish army had less then 5000 men and th colonists had about 20000 men. These battles were the turning point in the war. British goal to control the north died and they were frocked to give up hope on that. The French decided to join the coldness and work against the British. The colonists knew they had gained control of the northern colonies and this gave them more confidence. There was still many battles to happen before the colonies gained their independence but this victory was a major turning point. British surrendering to Americans http://americanrevolution7.wikispaces.com/file/view/AmericanRevolutionSaratoga.jpg/109011627/AmericanRevolutionSaratoga.jpg This map shows where the second battle of Saratoga took place http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Array_of_Units_on_the_Freeman%27s_Farm_Battlefield_.png
War in the south There were many small battles in the war in the south. the first one was savannah. 35000 British troops came to savannah Georgia and captured it. The next thing that happened was Augusta. In this 2000 British troopers took control of Augusta. These 2 victories for the British gave them compile control of British colony. Another thing that happened was called Camden. It was when 1780 colony troops battled the british in Camden. They got tired on te way to Camden and gave up when they saw they were out numbered. This meant British had took another major city. The next battle that happened is called battle of kings mounting. In this battle the colonists finally won again. They surrounded the British troops and then the British troops surrendered. The next battle that took place is called battle of coupons. It is when the colonies men won another battle when they defeated the British troops there. Next was the Guilford courthouse. even though the British won this battle they were forced to go to Wilmington then to Virginia. After this was hobkirks hill. In this the British troops once again beat the colony men at the resentment at hobkirks hill. The last thing that happened was Eutaw springs. At this the British beat the colonies men again but they were warn out and tired so they would retreat. The Yorktown attack was the very last battle in the war. Map of battle of cowpens http://www.history.army.mil/books/AMH-V1/Map11.jpg The Patriot - Battle of Camden Movie Clip http://youtu.be/IFpFHj4XfFg
Battle of Yorktown There were many small battles in the war in the south. the first one was savannah. 35000 British troops came to savannah Georgia and captured it. The next thing that happened was Augusta. In this 2000 British troopers took control of Augusta. These 2 victories for the British gave them compile control of British colony. Another thing that happened was called Camden. It was when 1780 colony troops battled the british in Camden. They got tired on te way to Camden and gave up when they saw they were out numbered. This meant British had took another major city. The next battle that happened is called battle of kings mounting. In this battle the colonists finally won again. They surrounded the British troops and then the British troops surrendered. The next battle that took place is called battle of coupons. It is when the colonies men won another battle when they defeated the British troops there. Next was the Guilford courthouse. even though the British won this battle they were forced to go to Wilmington then to Virginia. After this was hobkirks hill. In this the British troops once again beat the colony men at the resentment at hobkirks hill. The last thing that happened was Eutaw springs. At this the British beat the colonies men again but they were warn out and tired so they would retreat. The Yorktown attack was the very last battle in the war. British surrender at battle of Yorktown http://affiliates.art.com/get.art?T=15049472&A=333916&L=8&P=12062927&S=2&Y=0
Loyalists about 25000 loyalist fought on the side of the British. For about 5 percent of the people living in the united states the loss made people kill them selves. About 62000 loyalests of the British left after the united states were formed and went to Quebec, PEI and Nova Scotia the upper part of Canada. The united empire loyalists was a honorific name after British won the American revolutionary war. Some American loyalists even moved to British north America for the king but most went north to escape because of the republic idea. Some of the loyalists settled in the colonies but had to move to upper Canada. The arrival of them here was the beginning of the English speaking population in Canada.
Treaty of Paris This is sometimes also known as the peace treaty with Britain. It gave the Americans land east of Mississippi river and to the south of the great lakes. Native Americans lived in this area but were defeated by the united states. This did not include Florida because Brittan made an agreement with Spain that they could have Florida. The signing of the treaty of paris http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:PreliminaryTreatyOfParisPainting.jpg
Constitution US constitution is important to interment of government. it is the oldest written constitution made by the continental congress and first used in 1789. it outlines the powers of the 3 different government branches and the 3 levels of government. The basic points on it are the same today as when it was written. It states that 3 branches of government are separate and balanced by each other. That the US constitution is supreme. One last thing is that the people can can change the constitution with methods outlined. If they decided to change it they would have a vote and one side would have to have ¾ of the votes. Signing of constitution of the united states http://www.sussexvt.k12.de.us/science/The%20History%20of%20the%20World%201500-1899/The%20Constitution%20of%20the%20United%20States%20of%20America_files/image002.jpg
Bill of rights The us constitution has had 27 points in it. The bill of rights, which is the first 10 of those points was first used in 1791. they were made to met the demands of Massachusetts and the oter states that used it. The first point on the bill of rights is the most important one. It states that there will be freedom of speech and warship in all people that lived in these places. Copy of the bill of rights http://score.rims.k12.ca.us/score_lessons/symbols_freedom/images/billrights.gif
Worldwide influence After the American revolution democratic politics became aloud. The peoples rights became included in the state constitutions and with this came individual rights, equality and hostility to corporation. This is part of what makes the US a republic. The American revolution was the first successful revolution against the Europeans. It was also the first establishment of a republic with elected government since anent Rome. The revolution had a big impact on great Britten and some other British countries. Many of them spoke in favor of the Americans. The American declaration of independence had some impact on the French declaration of rights.