Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
American Revolution • War in Indian Country
Indian-Euro Relations: reciprocity, tensions, and interactions • Consequential impacts: • Agricultural practices • Plants and Livestock • Diseases/Alcohol • Economic dependency (guns, food, clothes) • Missionaries
Native Goals • Preserve Ancestral Lands: Encroachment and Disputes • Example: Stockbridge 90% to 6% ownership decline, 1763-1775 • Example: Treaty of Ft Stanwix, 1768, ceded Shawnee and Cherokee lands • Maintain flow of trade goods • Independence • Cultural Autonomy
Perceptions • Colonial : • Antagonistic: Indians as obstacle to progress of civilization • Cultural Superiority • Religion, custom, dress, foodways, economics • British Indian Superintendents: • Sir William Johnson (North); Guy Johnson • John Stuart (South)
Perceptions: Native • Indian viewpoint: Americans • Land Hungry: fraud and coercion • Poor trade partners • Colonial law undermined Native leadership • “A plague of locusts”
Taking Sides • Internal tensions wrought by continuous warfare • Generational Splits: Decline of elders, rise of youth • Decline of sachems, rise of warrior
The Beginning • Americans call for Neutrality • This is a family quarrel between us and Old England. You Indians are not concerned in it. We don't wish you to take up the hatchet against the king's troops. We desire you to remain at home, and not join either side, but keep the hatchet buried deep.
Indian Responses • Northeast: • Abanki, Passamaquodies, Micmacs • New York: • Iroquois: the Oneidas dilemma • Attack on Wyoming Valley 1778
Indian Responses • The Old Northwest • Wyandots, Delaware, Shawnee • Great Lakes • Ottawas, Chippewas, Potawatomi, • Illinois: • Miami, Kickapoo, Wabasha
American Responses • Richard White: “Murder gradually and inexorably became the dominant Indian policy.” • Destroy villages, burn crops • American strategy was to wage war against Indian cornfields. • Terror: bounties for Indian scalps
Strategy: • Geo. Washington: “Carry the war into the heart of the country of the six nations; to cut off their settlements, destroy their next year’s crops, and do them evry other mischief of which time and circumstances will permit.”
Campaigns • John Sullivan: NY (1779) • George Rogers Clark: Northwest • Kaskaskia (1778)and Vincennes (1779) • Cherokee Campaigns • Kentucky militia (Jefferson)
National Myth • Indians chose the wrong side and they lost. • Alternate: Indians, like Americans, fought for their freedom
End Game • Betrayal: Indians not mentioned in Treaty of Paris • “The Indians have done nothing to permit the king to give away their lands…” • Western Indians not defeated