The Story of Africa - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Story of Africa

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  1. The Story of Africa Geography & African Civilizations

  2. Satellite View

  3. Africa’s Size 4 6 0 0 M I L E S 5000 MILES • Second largest continent  11,700,000 sq. mi. • 10% of the world’s population. • 2 ½ times the size of the U. S.

  4. Geography & African Civilizations • Geography of Africa • 2nd largest continent in the world • 4,600 miles from east to west; 5,000 miles from north to south • Narrow coastlines lie on either side of a central plateau • Waterfalls or rapids form as rivers drop to the coast from the plateau making navigation impossible to or from the coast • Coastline has fewharbors,ports, or inlets • Large deserts: the Sahara in the north and the Kalahari in the south • Large rainforests with mahogany and teak trees that reach 150 feet tall • Most people live on the savannas or grassy plains which include mountainous highlands and swampy tropical stretches • The NileRiver flows north in northeast Africa

  5. The Mighty Nile River:“Longest River in the World”

  6. The Niger River Basin • Covers 7.5% of the continent. • Extends over 10 countries. • 2,600 miles long.

  7. Mt. Kilimanjaro:Snow on the Equator?

  8. The African Plateau

  9. The African Savannah:13 million sq. mi.

  10. The Sahara Desert

  11. Desertification

  12. Great Rift Valley 3,000 miles long

  13. West Africa: Home of our Hurricanes

  14. Vegetation Zones

  15. African Rain Forest • Annual rainfall of up to 17 ft. • Rapid decomposition (very humid). • Covers 37 countries. • 15% of the land surface of Africa.

  16. Mediterranean Sea Atlas Mts. Libyan Desert The Complete Topography Of AFRICA Tropic of Cancer 20° N Sahara Desert Red Sea Sahel NileRiver NigerRiver L. Chad--> Great Rift Valley <--Gulf of Aden L. Albert--> ΔMt. Kenya Equator 0° Congo River L. Victoria ΔMt. Kilimanjaro L. Tanganyika-> Indian Ocean Ruwenzori Mts. Atlantic Ocean Zambezi River Namib Desert Kalahari Desert LimpopoRiver Tropic of Capricorn20° S OrangeRiver Drajensburg Mts. Pacific Ocean

  17. Geography & African Civilizations • Customs of Early Peoples • Early peoples were nomadic • Experts believe agriculture started in Africa roughly by 6,000 B.C. • The family was important and African people organized into familygroups • Many early cultures’ religions included elements of animism • Animism: a religion in which spirits play an important role in dailylife • History was kept orally, not written down • Bantu-speaking people migrated south and east leading to: • Spread of farming techniques • Territorialwars • Intermarriages • Spread of technology such as copper, bronze, and iron work

  18. Empire of Ghana Website

  19. Natural Resources

  20. Geography & African Civilizations • Early Civilizations of West Africa • Empire of Ghana 800 A.D. • Became a rich kingdom by taxingtraders who traveled through their lands • Gold and salt were important & desirable trade items • By 800, Ghana was an empire • Only the king could own gold; acted as religious leader, chief judge and military commander • Eventually Ghana’s rulers convertedtoIslam and had to learn Arabic; much of the population neverconverted • 1076 Muslim Almoravidsconquered Ghana and disrupted the gold-salt trade • Ghana neverregained its power

  21. Gold-Salt Trade Berbers SALT GOLD

  22. Salt

  23. Salt Fields of Taghaza

  24. Empire of Mali Website

  25. Geography & African Civilizations • Empire of Mali • Emerged by 1235 south of Ghana; Mali’s wealth was also built on gold • Sundiata militarily took over Ghana; peace and prosperity followed • Some of Mali’s next rulers became Muslims and built mosques • MansaMusa (Muslim) divided Mali into provinces and appointed governors • Within 50 years of Mansa Musa, Mali’s gold trade shifted east and his successors were unable to govern the empire effectively

  26. Timbuktu-”Heavenly Clay”

  27. Timbuktu Rooftop, Mosque

  28. Great Mosque at Djenne, Mali

  29. Distant Mosque at Djenne, Mali

  30. Sundiata [1210-1260] “Lion Prince”

  31. European Map

  32. Mansa Musa [r. 1312-1337]

  33. Empire of Songhai Website

  34. Geography & African Civilizations • Empire of Songhai 1400s • Capital was Gao; extended their territory to the large bend in the Niger River • Two great Muslim leaders: Sunni Ali & Askia Muhammad • Created an empire through military conquest and efficient tax collecting • Unfortunately, Songhai lacked modernweapons • Defeated by Moroccaninvaders and ended 1,000 years of W. African power

  35. Crossing the Ocean of Sand

  36. Desert Caravan

  37. Sunni Ali [r.1464-1492]

  38. Askia Mohammed [r.1493-1529]

  39. Askia Mohammed’s Tomb [1443-1538] Gao, Mali

  40. Kingdom of Axum [300-700]

  41. Geography & African Civilizations • Early Civilizations of East Africa • Aksum Empire • Located on the horn of Africa on a plateau on the Red Sea • Conquered the Kush people who had been pushed south by the Assyrians • Traders from Egypt, Arabia, Persia, India, and the Roman Empire travelled though Adulis, Aksum’s chief seaport • They traded salt, rhinoceros horns, ivory, & gold • Height of empire was 325-360 under strong military leader Ezana • Monotheistic: worshiped Mahrem and believed king was his descendent • Aksum later becomes Christian • Depletion of soil and forests as well as Islamic invaders caused decline

  42. Stele, Ezana’s Royal Tomb,Aksum (4c)

  43. AXUM’SACHIEVEMENTS Built Stelae Controlled NE African Trade Written Language Terrace Farming Spread Christianity in No. & E. Africa

  44. Geography & African Civilizations • Early Civilizations of Southern Africa • GreatZimbabwe 1000 A.D. • City built by Shona people that turned into an empire built on gold trade • Leaders taxed traders and travelers who ventured through • Great Zimbabwe was abandoned by 1450; no clear reason why • Much of what is known about Great Zimbabwe comes from impressiveruins

  45. African Trade Routes