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President Richard Nixon and his assistant, H. R. Haldeman (right), in front of White House (1969).

An Age of Limits. President Nixon reaches out to Communist nations, but leaves office disgraced by the Watergate scandal. His successors face a sluggish economy, environmental concerns, and a revolution in Iran.

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President Richard Nixon and his assistant, H. R. Haldeman (right), in front of White House (1969).

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  1. An Age of Limits President Nixon reaches out to Communist nations, but leaves office disgraced by the Watergate scandal. His successors face a sluggish economy, environmental concerns, and a revolution in Iran. President Richard Nixon and his assistant, H. R. Haldeman (right), in front of White House (1969). NEXT

  2. Section 1 The Nixon Administration President Richard M. Nixon tries to steer the country in a conservative direction and away from federal control. NEXT

  3. Confronting a Stagnant Economy The Causes of Stagflation • Stagflation—combination of high inflation, high unemployment • Inflation result of LBJ’s deficit spending on war, social programs • Unemployment from more international trade, new workers • Rising oil prices, U.S. dependence on foreign oil add to inflation • Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) controls prices • Nixon Battles Stagflation • Nixon tries different strategies; none have much success NEXT

  4. Détente: Nixon’s Foreign Policy Triumphs • Kissinger and Realpolitik • Henry Kissinger—national security adviser, later secretary of state • • Realpolitik—foreign policy based on power issues, not ideals, morals • Realpolitik calls for U.S. to confront powerful nations, ignore weak • Nixon, Kissinger follow policy of détente—easing Cold War tensions NEXT

  5. Nixon Visits China • 1971, Nixon’s visit to China a huge success; U.S., China agree to: • - cooperate over disputes, have scientific, cultural exchange • Takes advantage of rift between China, Soviet Union • Nixon Travels to Moscow • 1972, Nixon visits Moscow; he, Brezhnev sign SALT I Treaty: • - Strategic Arms Limitation Talks limit missiles to 1972 levels • Foreign policy triumphs, expected Vietnam peace help win reelection NEXT

  6. Watergate: Nixon's Downfall President Richard Nixon’s involvement in the Watergate scandal forces him to resign from office. NEXT

  7. SECTION 2 Watergate: Nixon’s Downfall President Nixon and His White House • An Imperial Presidency • Depression, WW II, Cold War make executive most powerful branch • Nixon expands presidential powers, ignores Congress • The President’s Men • Nixon has small, loyal group of advisers; like him, desire secrecy • - H. R. Haldeman, White House chief of staff • - John Ehrlichman, chief domestic adviser • - John Mitchell, Nixon’s former attorney general NEXT

  8. The Drive Toward Reelection • A Bungled Burglary • • Committee to Reelect the President (CREEP) break into Democratic headquarters • • Watergate scandal is administration’s attempt to cover up break-in • - destroy documents, try to stop investigation, buy burglars’ silence • Washington Post reporters, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein link administration to break-in • White House denies allegations; little public interest in charges • Nixon reelected by landslide over liberal Democrat George McGovern NEXT

  9. Image The Cover-Up Unravels • The Senate Investigates Watergate • Judge John Sirica presides burglars’ trial, thinks did not act alone • Burglar leader James McCord says lied under oath, advisers involved • Nixon dismisses White House counsel John Dean; others resign • Senator Samuel J. Ervin heads investigative committee • Startling Testimony • Dean declares Nixon involved in cover-up • Alexander Butterfield says Nixon tapes presidential conversations Continued . . . NEXT

  10. Key Players in Watergate Judge John Sirica Presided over Watergate Hearings Woodward & Bernstein Washington Post Reporters

  11. Key Players in Watergate Special Prosecutor Archibald Cox Fired in “Saturday Night Massacre Nixon’s Inner Circle H. R. Haldeman, Chief of Staff

  12. Key Players in Watergate John Ehrlichman Chief Domestic Advisor John N. Mitchell Attorney General

  13. The Saturday Night Massacre • Special prosecutor Archibald Cox subpoenas tapes; Nixon refuses • Nixon orders Cox fired, attorney general Elliot Richardson refuses • • Saturday Night Massacre: Richardson resigns; deputy refuses, fired • Cox’s replacement, Leon Jaworski, also calls for tapes • Vice President Spiro Agnew resigns, revealed he accepted bribes • Nixon nominates, Congress confirms Gerald R. Ford as vice-president NEXT

  14. The Fall of a President • Nixon Releases the Tapes • March 1974, grand jury indicts 7 presidential aides • - charges: conspiracy, obstruction of justice, perjury • Nixon tells TV audience he is releasing edited transcripts • July, Supreme Court rules unanimously Nixon must surrender tapes Continued . . . NEXT

  15. Chart Image continuedThe Fall of a President • The President Resigns • House Judiciary Committee approves 3 articles of impeachment • - formal accusation of wrongdoing while in office • - charges: obstruction of justice, abuse of power, contempt of Congress • Nixon releases tapes; show knows of administration role, cover up • Before full House votes on impeachment, Nixon resigns • The Effects of Watergate • 25 members of administration convicted, serve prison terms NEXT

  16. Nixon Resigns, August 9, 1974

  17. The Ford and Carter Years The Ford and Carter administrations attempt to remedy the nation’s worst economic crisis in decades. NEXT

  18. The Ford and Carter Years Ford Travels a Rough Road • “A Ford, Not a Lincoln” • September 1974, new president Gerald R. Ford pardons Nixon • Tries to move country past Watergate; loses much public support • Ford Tries to “Whip” Inflation • Unsuccessfully asks public to cut back use of oil, gas, save energy • Cuts government spending; urges higher interest to restrict credit • “Tight money” policy triggers recession • Continually battles Democratic Congress with own economic agenda% NEXT

  19. Carter Enters the White House • Mr. Carter Goes to Washington • • Jimmy Carter promises to restore integrity to presidency • - defeats Ford by narrow margin • Has down-to-earth style; holds “fireside chats” on radio, TV • Does not make deals with Congress; relies on Georgia advisers • Both parties in Congress join to sink Carter budgets, major reforms

  20. Image Carter’s Domestic Agenda • Confronting the Energy Crisis • Carter offers energy proposals; oil-, gas-producing states, auto makers resist • • National Energy Act—encourages conservation, U.S. energy sources • National Energy Act, conservation cut foreign oil dependence • The Economic Crisis Worsens • Violence in Middle East creates fuel shortage; OPEC raises prices • Carter tries various methods, none work; gives “malaise” speech • 1980 inflation 14%, standard of living drops; people lose confidence Continued . . . NEXT

  21. Where do these terms come from? • Birth control, Ho Chi Minh, Richard Nixon back againMoonshot, Woodstock, Watergate, punk rockBegin, Reagan, Palestine, Terror on the airlineAyatollah's in Iran, Russians in Afghanistan

  22. continuedCarter’s Domestic Agenda • A Changing Economy • From 1950s automation, foreign competition reduce manufacturing jobs • Service sector expands, higher paying jobs require education, skills NEXT

  23. A Human Rights Foreign Policy • Advancing Human Rights • Carter’s foreign policy promotes human rights—basic freedoms • Cuts off aid to some, not all, allies that mistreat own citizens • Yielding the Panama Canal • Panamanians resent having country split in two by foreign power • 1977 treaty gives control of canal to Panama on Dec. 31, 1999 • Agreements improve relations between U.S., Latin America

  24. The Collapse of Détente • Carter’s insistence on human rights strains relations with U.S.S.R. • SALT II talks delayed; Carter, Brezhnev finally sign June 1979 • SALT II meets sharp opposition in Senate • December, Soviets invade Afghanistan; Carter lets SALT II die

  25. Triumph and Crisis in the Middle East • The Camp David Accords • 1978 Carter hosts talks between Anwar el-Sadat, Menachem Begin • • Camp David Accords forge peace between Israel, Egypt: • - Israel withdraws from Sinai Peninsula • - Egypt recognizes Israel’s right to exist

  26. The Iran Hostage Crisis • • Ayatollah Khomeini leads overthrow of shah • - establishes Islamic state • Carter supports shah; allows him entry to U.S. for cancer treatment • Students seize U.S. embassy, take 52 hostages; demand shah back • Carter refuses; standoff ensues; intense secret negotiations follow • Captives released Jan. 1981, shortly after Ronald Reagan sworn in

  27. Happy Death to America Day!!!(November 4) US is the Great Satan

  28. "The idea that religion and politics don't mix was invented by the Devil to keep Christians from running their own country." • The Conservative Coalition • Business, religious, other groups form conservative coalition • Conservative periodicals, think tanks discuss, develop policies • Goals are small government, family values, patriotism, business • The Moral Majority • 1970s religious revival uses TV, radio; strong among fundamentalists • Jerry Falwell’s Moral Majority—Christians for traditional morals NEXT

  29. SECTION 2 Conservative Policies Under Reagan and Bush “Reaganomics” Takes Over • Reagan’s Economic Policies • Reagan encourages private investment by cutting federal government • • Reaganomics: budget cuts, tax cuts, increased defense spending • Budget Cuts • Maintains entitlement programs that benefit middle class • Cuts programs that benefit poor, urban population Continued . . . NEXT

  30. SECTION 2 Tax Cuts • Supply-side economics holds that lower taxes result in: - investment, greater productivity, more supply, lower prices • Congress decreases taxes by 25% over 3 years • Increased Defense Spending • Defense Dept. budget almost doubles; offsets cuts in social programs • Reagan asks scientists for Strategic Defense Initiative • - anti-missile defense system • - supposed to be able to shoot nuclear missiles out of the sky from space with lasers • - is it possible? • - press dubs it "Star Wars" • -A lot of money spent, was it practical or did it help win the Cold War NEXT

  31. Recession and Recovery • July 1981–Nov. 1982, worst recession since Great Depression • Early 1983 consumer spending fuels economic upturn: • - more consumer confidence, decrease in inflation, unemployment • 1987, market crashes, then recovers, continues up • The National Debt Climbs • Spending outstrips revenues; new 1982 taxes do not balance budget • National debt almost doubles by end of Reagan’s first term, triples by the end of the presidency NEXT

  32. Social Concerns in the 1980s Health, Education, and Cities in Crisis Health Issues • AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) caused by virus - destroys immune system, makes body prone to infections, cancer • 1980s, epidemic grows; increasing concern over prevention, cure • Abortion • 1980s, battle over abortion intensifies • - opponents are pro-life; supporters are pro-choice • 1989, Supreme Court rules states may place restrictions on abortion NEXT

  33. Foreign Policy NEXT

  34. SECTION 4 Central American and Caribbean Policy • Nicaragua • • Sandinistas—rebel group, takes over Nicaragua; Carter sends them aid • Reagan calls them communists; helps Contras—opposition forces • 1990, Contra supporter Violeta de Chamorro elected president • Congress through the Boland Amendment disallows Reagan to help the Contras • Grenada • 1983 Reagan sends troops; pro-Cuba government replaced with pro-U.S. NEXT

  35. SECTION 4 Image Middle East Trouble Spots • The Iran-Contra Scandal • 1983, terrorists loyal to Iran take Americans hostage in Lebanon • Reagan says no negotiating with terrorists; sells arms for hostages • Staff divert some profits to Contras; violate Boland Amendment • 1987, Congressional committees hold joint TV hearings • 1988, several staffers indicted; 1992, Bush pardons Reagan officials Continued . . . NEXT

  36. SECTION 4 Foreign Policy After the Cold War The Cold War Ends • Gorbachev Initiates Reform • • Mikhail Gorbachev—general secretary of Soviet Communist Party • Soviet economy stressed; Reagan’s defense spending adds pressure • Gorbachev adopts glasnost—allows criticism, some freedom of press • Plans perestroika—some private enterprise, move to democracy • Wants better relations with U.S. to cut U.S.S.R. military spending • - arms-control INF Treaty (Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty) Continued . . . NEXT

  37. “Mr. Gorbachev, Tear down this wall!”

  38. SECTION 4 Map continuedThe Cold War Ends • The Soviet Union Declines • 1991, 14 republics declare independence; Gorbachev forced to resign • Commonwealth of Independent States forms; 1993 START II signed • The Collapse of Communist Regimes • Gorbachev reduces Soviet control of Eastern Europe, urges democracy • 1989, Berlin Wall torn down; 1990, 2 Germanys reunited • Czechoslovakia, Baltic states, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania democratic • Ethnic civil war breaks out in Yugoslavia Continued . . . NEXT

  39. SECTION 4 continuedThe Cold War Ends Tank Man: Who is he? Is he alive? • Communism Continues in China • 1980s, China loosens business restrictions, stops price controls • Students demand free speech, voice in government • 1989, demonstrations in Beijing’s Tiananmen Square, other cities • Premier Li Peng orders military to crush protesters • - unarmed students killed (200 to 1500 best guesses) NEXT

  40. George Herbert Walker Bush (1989 - 1993) Foreign Policy • 1. Invaded Panama to depose dictator and drug kingpin Manuel Noriega. • 2. Conducted Operation Desert Storm to oppose Iraq's invasion of Kuwait. Liberates Kuwait, but does not remove Saddam Hussein. • 3. Cold War ends- Berlin Wall falls, Soviet Union implodes, Huge Success, yet not re-elected because of a poor economy, Clinton quote was, “It’s the economy stupid.”

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