Richard M. Nixon. Republican Party 1969-1974 37 th President of the United States. http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/impeachments/nixon.htm. Born on January 9 , 1913 to Francis Anthony Nixon and Hannah Milhous Nixon
37th President of the United States
While both Kennedy and Nixon held relatively moderate views on the issues of the 1950s and 1960s, Nixon failed to portray himself worthy of the “war hero” title given to Kennedy for his saving of Americans in a South Pacific crash between a United States ship and the Japanese PT109. Nixon, moreover, lacked Kennedy’s wealthy upbringing and speech-making abilities, which prompted voters to elect the apparently more reliable candidate.
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Reasons for the Win
On account of recent social crises, such as the assassinations of both John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King and various protests on the Vietnam War and race relations, Nixon, standing steadily on a platform of “law and order,” rose to the presidency. While Wallace held an impressive position as a third-party candidate, he ultimately failed to win a majority of the electoral votes for his pro-segregation stance.
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Reasons for the Win
Entering the Election with successes in concluding the Vietnam War and reestablishing positive relations with China, Nixon held an advantage over Senator McGovern, who was overshadowed by his relative obscurity and involvement in the firing of Thomas Eagleton, a candidate for the vice presidency. Under these circumstances, Nixon easily acquired his 503 electoral vote majority.
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Description/Provision: Following his loss in the election for the governor of California in 1962, Nixon returned to his studies of law and swore himself off of politics. However, missing the political arena, he returned to politics, ran in the presidential election of 1968 and proceeded to take to the Oval Office in 1969.
Description/Provision: A combined effort by Team Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins resulted in the American achievement of placing a man on the Moon.
Description/Provision: In March of 1968, a United States infantry invaded My Lai, Vietnam and killed approximately 300 civilians. The Massacre was unbeknownst to the American public until Serviceman Ron Ridenhour called upon Congress for further investigation through interrogation of the Vietnamese and witnesses and wounded victims.
Description/Provision: Following fourteen years of fighting against the spread of Communism in Asia, Nixon began withdrawing United States troops from Vietnam. This move was long-awaited by thousands of anti-war protesters both in the United States and Vietnam.
Description/Provision: Continuing his efforts to conclude the Vietnam War with “peace and honor” through Vietnamization, Nixon, in his “Silent Majority” Speech, called upon the American citizens who previously did not utter an opinion of the War to support his new measure.
Description/Provision: Originally intended to be a two-day, 50,000 people rock and roll concert, the Woodstock Festival quickly transformed into a three-day, 500,000 people rock and roll concert. Musicians, including Jimi Hendrix, The Who and Grateful Dead, performed in the John Roberts, Joel Rosenman, Artie Kornfeld and Michael Lang-sponsored event in Bethel, New York.
Description/Provision: The Nixon Doctrine was Nixon’s official statement concerning the Vietnamization of Vietnam by the process of replacing United States troops with South Vietnamese troops on the frontline. It stated that the United States would maintain its commitment to its treaties with the Asian nations, especially with Vietnam and Iran, but only under the threat of nuclear war would Americans return to battlegrounds as a secondary source of protection. The Doctrine worked hand in hand with Nixon’s earlier withdrawal of 25,000 troops and his “Silent Majority” Speech.
Description/Provision: Proclaimed in the midst of the Cold War (1945-1991), Détente was a Nixon and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger-inspired measure to promote “relaxation of tensions” between the United States and the Soviet Union. While more of an appeasement than a resolution to conflict, the Policy outlined that the United States would abide by all demands of the Soviet Union, unilaterally disarm, send subsidies to Moscow to fund its socialist economy and institute a direct hotline between Washington D.C. and the Soviet Union for cases requiring emergency contact.
Description/Provision: Believing the Parrot’s Beak region of Cambodia to be a provisioning center for the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVM), the army of the Northern Vietnamese, and the National Liberation Front (NLF) or the Vietcong, the army of the Southern Vietnamese Communism supporters, Nixon ordered a secret invasion of the region by United States troops and Southern Vietnamese allies.
Description/Provision: Following Nixon’s decision to invade Cambodia, a decision that contradicted his election platform to end the Vietnam War, students across the United States protested. Of these protests, Kent State University served as the location for a relatively large demonstration. Inaccurately recognizing the demonstration as chaotic, National Guardsmen shot and killed four unarmed students, Allison Krause, Jeffrey Glenn Miller, Sandra Lee Scheuer and Knox Schroeder.
Description/Provision: Photographs from the Moon of the Earth prompted a new idealistic image of the world in which the Americans lived—despite the tragedies of war and racial discrimination, the Earth was a beautiful celestial body that depended on humans for fortification. Thereafter, with this acknowledgement, the American public called out for governmental assistance in protecting the defenseless Earth. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was soon created to combine into one agency previous governmental efforts to care for the land.
Description/Provision: One year prior to the passing of Title IX, which prohibits the exclusion of individuals from participation in sports on the basis of sex, women were permitted to play five-player, full-court basketball in recreational settings, high school and college.
Description/Provision: During a period when men too young to vote were of a reasonable age to be drafted into the Vietnam War, proponents of lowering the voting age to eighteen shouted, “Old enough to fight, old enough to vote.” Taking note of the ideologies of said proponents, Congress passed legislation granting all United States citizens the right to vote in elections upon fulfilling eighteen years of age.
Description/Provision: Reflecting on the My Lai Massacre (1968), the court at Fort Benning, Georgia found Lieutenant Calley of the American Division’s Eleventh Infantry Brigade, more specifically, the Charlie Company, guilty on several counts of unprovoked murder.
Description/Provision: Just as the anti-Vietnam War rallies had settled to a relative whisper, The New York Times published the Pentagon Papers, a collection of governmental documents that suggested that the Kennedy-Johnson administration had deprived the nation of information on foreign miscalculations, bureaucratic superciliousness and deceptive motivations.
Description/Provision: Inheriting rapidly-growing inflation but a low unemployment rate, Nixon, though more interested in foreign affairs than economics, opted for a economic program that supported lowering the inflation from the Kennedy-Johnson Administration. In 1971, he enacted his New Economic Program, a program founded on Keynesian Economics theories of governmental involvement in the marketplace producing economic growth and prosperity, and his 90-Day Freeze Program, a program that forbade the adjustment of wages and/or prices for a ninety-day period.
Description/Provision: Acknowledging that, while the United States longed to defeat the Communist regimes of the Soviet Union and China, the two nations could be pitted against one another to ultimately reduce homeland toil, Nixon accepted an invitation to be the first president to visit China in 1972. He refused to dismiss his anti-Communism background but believed the trip would improve relations between the United States and China.
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Description/Provision:SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at every level and supplied for the addition of new submarine launched-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) launchers. This occurred only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had previously been dismantled. Eventually, an agreement was reached with the USSR to limit “strategic ballistic offensive arms.”
Description/Provision: On June 17, 1972, five men broke into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex. The FBI connected many payments to the burglars to a slush fund used by the Committee for the Re-Election of the President, which is a fundraising group for the Nixon campaign. As more evidence was found against the president's staff, which included many former staff members testifying against them in an investigation conducted by the Senate Watergate Committee, it was confirmed that in July 1973 that Nixon had a tape-recording system in his offices and he had recorded many conversations throughout his administration. These recordings from these tapes revealed that he had attempted to cover up the break-in. After a series of court battles, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the President had to hand over the tapes to government investigators. Eventually, he complied.
Description/Provision: In February of 1972, Nixon traveled to Beijing, Hangzhou and Shanghai. At the end of his trip, the United States and the Chinese Governments issued the Shanghai Communiqué, which was a statement of their foreign policy views and a document that has continued the basis of Sino-American mutual relations. One of the main results was a peaceful settlement of the Taiwan question by the Chinese.
Description/Provision: This Amendment was first proposed by the National Woman's Party in 1923. It was implemented to provide for the legal equality of the sexes and forbid discrimination on the basis of sex. Hawaii was the first state to ratify it, followed by thirty more states.
Description/Provision: Frederick LaRue and G. Gordon Liddy, two White House aids, attended a meeting for the Nixon Presidential Campaign, the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP). There, former Attorney General and current Chairman of CREEP John Mitchell proposed that the they would spend $250,000 to conduct an “intelligence gathering” operation against the Democratic Party for the upcoming elections. They also planted surveillance in the Democratic headquarters.
Description/Provision:George Wallace was shot five times by Arthur Bremer while campaigning in Maryland on May 15, 1972. Many saw this extremely strange since, at a time, he was receiving high ratings in the opinion polls. Wallace was hit in the abdomen and chest and, when one of the bullets hit Wallace's spinal column, he was left paralyzed from the waist down for the rest of his life.
Description/Provision: Nixon ran a three-way race composed of himself, Humphrey and Independent Candidate Governor George Wallace. Nixon beat Humphrey by nearly 500,000 votes, which was seven-tenths of a percentage point. He won 301 electoral votes to 191 for Humphrey and 46 for Wallace.
Description/Provision: General Ford was the first person appointed to the vice presidency under the terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment. He was appointed because Spiro Agnew had resigned.
Description/Provision: This was a decision by the United States Supreme Court on the extremely controversial issue of abortion. Deciding with the companion case of Doe v. Bolton, the Court ruled that a right to privacy under the due process clause in the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution should also be extended to a woman's decision of whether or not she wants to have an abortion. The Court also ruled that this right must be balanced with the state's two interests for regulating abortions, which include protecting prenatal life and protecting the woman's health. The Court then resolved this by compromise—combining state regulation of abortion with the woman's first trimester of pregnancy.
Description/Provision: In Wounded Knee, South Dakota on February 27, 1973, followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM) staged a 71-day occupation of the area. In response to the incident, Marshals Service volunteers decided to assist in a resolution. U.S. marshals, chief deputies, deputies and other support personnel also volunteered in the siege, providing for a hefty death toll.
Description/Provision: In October of 1973, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) announced a decision to raise the price of oil by 70% to $5.11 a barrel. The next day, oil ministers agreed to the raise in price, as well as a cut in production by five percent from the pervious months output, and to continue to cut production in five percent increments until the economic and political objectives were met.
Description/Provision: In July of 2007, the National Archives and Records Administration were given control of the Richard Nixon Library. The new Richard Nixon Library and Museum contains the release of 78,000 pages of previously restricted documents and 11½ hours of audio tape comprising 165 conversations. The conversations reveal Nixon discussing the 1972 Presidential and congressional elections and the President's decision to reorganize his administration by asking most of his staff to resign. The tapes also contain conversations with Nixon and Kissinger regarding negotiations to end the war in Vietnam.
Description/Provision: "Saturday Night Massacre" was the name given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixon's executive dismissal of independent Archibald Cox and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus in October of 1973 during the time of the Watergate Scandal.
Description/Provision:Hoping to undercut the president’s ability to concentrate power, Congress created the War Powers Act, a resolution that would check the president’s power in time of warfare. Nixon, however, fearing the loss of his presidential privileges, vetoed the Act.
Description/Provision: The House Judiciary Committee began the impeachment hearings against Nixon in July of 1974. The Supreme Court ruled that Nixon was required to provide transcripts of the missing tapes and evidence that he tried to cover up the Watergate break-in.
Description/Provision: Nixon resigned from office for his lack of political support from the people, as well as for his impeachment. He resigned on August 8, 1974. It was later revealed that he left office only under the condition that Ford would grant him a full pardon on his behalf.
“After Nixon resigned in 1974, he engaged in a very aggressive war with history, attempting to wipe out the Watergate stain and memory. Happily, history won, largely because of Nixon's tapes.”
“He was the most dishonest individual I ever met in my life. President Nixon lied to his wife, his family, his friends, longtime colleagues in the US Congress, lifetime members of his own political party, the American people and the world.”
“I contend that, in spite of all that might be said about Watergate, Richard Nixon was good for the poor people of America.”
-Hunter S. ThompsonQuotations
Ordered United States troops to invade Cambodia
Pardoned Lieutenant Calley following the My Lai Massacre
Attempted to revoke individuals’ right to the press in the conflict surrounding the publication of the Pentagon Papers
Partook in illegal surveillance of confidential conversations in the Watergate Scandal
Vetoed Congress’ War Powers Act to limit the power of the president