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Richard M. Nixon. Republican Party 1969-1974 37 th President of the United States. http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/impeachments/nixon.htm. Born on January 9 , 1913 to Francis Anthony Nixon and Hannah Milhous Nixon

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richard m nixon

Richard M. Nixon

Republican Party

1969-1974

37th President of the United States

http://www.historyplace.com/unitedstates/impeachments/nixon.htm

occupational and educational background

Born on January 9, 1913 to Francis Anthony Nixon and Hannah Milhous Nixon

  • Attended Whittier College (1930-1934) and Duke University of Law School (1934-1937)
  • Pursued an interest in law and business as an entrepreneur
  • Served as in the navy and, later, as a lieutenant commander of the army in World War II (1942-1945)
  • Elected into the Senate as a representative of California (1950-1953) and into the Vice Presidency under Dwight D. Eisenhower (1953-1961)
  • Lost in the election for president (1960) and for governor of California (1962)
  • Succeeded in the presidential elections of 1968 and 1972
  • Resigned from office (1974)
Occupational and Educational Background

http://americanhistory.about.com/od/richardnixon/p/pnixon.htm

http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0760621.html

http://buldukloo.blogspot.com/2011/12/richard-nixon.html?sss

the executive board

ExecutiveBoard

  • Vice Presidents: Spiro T. Agnew (1969-1973) and Gerald R Ford (1973-1974)
  • Secretaries of State: William P. Rogers (1969-1973) and Henry A. Kissinger (1973-1974)

Cabinet Members

  • Secretaries of Treasury: David M. Kennedy (1969-1970), John B. Connally, Jr. (1971-72), George P. Schultz (1972-74) and William E. Simon (1974)
  • Secretaries of Defense: Melvin R. Laird (1969-1972), Elliot L. Richardson (1973) and James R. Schlesinger (1973-1974)
  • Attorney Generals: John N. Mitchell (1969-1972), Richard G. Kleindienst (1972-1973), Elliot L. Richardson (1973) and William B. Saxbe (1974)
  • Postmaster General: Winton M. Blount (1969-1971)
  • Secretaries of the Interior: Walter J. Hickel (1969-1970) and Rogers C. B. Morton (1971-1974)
  • Secretaries of Agriculture: Clifford M. Hardin (1969-1971) and Earl L. Butz (1971-1974)
  • Secretaries of Commerce: Maurice H. Stans (1969-1972), Peter G. Peterson (1972) and Frederick B. Dent (1973-1974)
  • Secretaries of Labor: George P. Schultz (1969-1970), James D. Hodgson (1970-1972) and Peter J. Brennan (1973-1974)
  • Secretaries of Health, Education and Welfare: Robert H. Finch (1969-1970), Elliot L. Richardson (1970-1973) and Caspar W. Weinberger (1973-1974)
  • Secretaries of Housing and Urban Development: George W. Romney (1969-1972) and James T. Lynn (1973-1974)
  • Secretaries of Transportation: John A. Volpe (1969-1973) and Claude S. Brinegar (1973-1974)
The Executive Board

http://potus.com/rmnixon.html

http://www.nndb.com/people/475/000027394/

election of 1960
Candidates

ReasonsfortheLoss

While both Kennedy and Nixon held relatively moderate views on the issues of the 1950s and 1960s, Nixon failed to portray himself worthy of the “war hero” title given to Kennedy for his saving of Americans in a South Pacific crash between a United States ship and the Japanese PT109. Nixon, moreover, lacked Kennedy’s wealthy upbringing and speech-making abilities, which prompted voters to elect the apparently more reliable candidate.

  • John F. Kennedy (D): 34,226,731 popular votes; 303 electoral votes
  • Richard M. Nixon (R): 34,108,157 popular votes; 219 electoral votes
Election of 1960

http://www.ushistory.org/us/56a.asp

http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/john-f-kennedy-50.php

The American Pageant 12th Edition, page A60

election of 19601
Election of 1960

http://kids.britannica.com/eb/art-67691/Results-of-the-American-presidential-election-1960-Presidential-Candidate-Political

election of 1968
Candidates

Reasons for the Win

On account of recent social crises, such as the assassinations of both John F. Kennedy and Martin Luther King and various protests on the Vietnam War and race relations, Nixon, standing steadily on a platform of “law and order,” rose to the presidency. While Wallace held an impressive position as a third-party candidate, he ultimately failed to win a majority of the electoral votes for his pro-segregation stance.

  • Richard M. Nixon (R): 31,785,480 popular votes; 301 electoral votes
  • Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr. (D): 31,275,166 popular votes; 191 electoral votes
  • George C. Wallace (AIP): 9,906,473 popular votes; 46 electoral votes
Election of 1968

http://www.270towin.com/1968_Election/

http://education-portal.com/articles/Duke_Students_Pay_Musical_Homage_to_Nixon.html

The American Pageant 12th Edition, page A60

election of 19681
Election of 1968

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/67693/Results-of-the-American-presidential-election-1968-Presidential-Candidate-Political

election of 1972
Candidates

Reasons for the Win

Entering the Election with successes in concluding the Vietnam War and reestablishing positive relations with China, Nixon held an advantage over Senator McGovern, who was overshadowed by his relative obscurity and involvement in the firing of Thomas Eagleton, a candidate for the vice presidency. Under these circumstances, Nixon easily acquired his 503 electoral vote majority.

  • Richard M. Nixon (R): 47,169,911 popular votes; 520 electoral votes
  • George S. McGovern (D): 29,170,383 popular votes; 17 electoral votes
Election of 1972

http://www.270towin.com/1972_Election/

http://www.thefamouspeople.com/profiles/richard-nixon-62.php

The American Pageant 12th Edition, page A60

election of 19721
Election of 1972

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/media/67694/

richard nixon becomes president 1969

Description/Provision: Following his loss in the election for the governor of California in 1962, Nixon returned to his studies of law and swore himself off of politics. However, missing the political arena, he returned to politics, ran in the presidential election of 1968 and proceeded to take to the Oval Office in 1969.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Nixon’s assurance to restore order in a nation overwhelmed with chaos carried him to the win, suggesting that the American peoples were intent on remaining a progressive leader of the world. They held hopes of social equality and global peace, both of which were chief priorities for the Thirty-Seventh President.
Richard Nixon Becomes President, 1969

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAnixon.htm

http://www.nuclearfiles.org/menu/key-issues/nuclear-weapons/history/prez_policies/nixon/nixon.htm

men land on the moon 1969

Description/Provision: A combined effort by Team Neil Armstrong, Buzz Aldrin and Michael Collins resulted in the American achievement of placing a man on the Moon.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Proclaiming sentiments as "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind” and "Here men from the planet Earth first set foot upon the Moon [in] July 1969 AD. We came in peace for all mankind,” the landers set the precedent for universal, not global, progression and peace. The victory also held strength in the so-called “Space Race” between the United States and the Soviet Union.
Men Land on the Moon, 1969

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/july/21/newsid_2635000/2635845.stm

http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/economy/ibm-turns-100/2011/06/15/AGcHJkWH_gallery.html

my lai massacre revealed 1969

Description/Provision: In March of 1968, a United States infantry invaded My Lai, Vietnam and killed approximately 300 civilians. The Massacre was unbeknownst to the American public until Serviceman Ron Ridenhour called upon Congress for further investigation through interrogation of the Vietnamese and witnesses and wounded victims.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: The revelation paved the way for widespread outrage amongst Americans over the Vietnam War. Those who has not previously involved themselves in the anti-war efforts now joined the protests. While many of those who partook in the Massacre had already resigned from their service, Captain Ernest Medina and Lieutenant William Calley received court-sentenced consequences, thereby preserving the commitment of the United States justice system.
My Lai Massacre Revealed, 1969

http://www.onthisdeity.com/16th-march-1968-%E2%80%93-the-my-lai-massacre/

http://vietnamwarmusicguide.com/vietnamwartimeline-11121969-story-breaks-of-my-lai-massacre

nixon begins withdraw of u s troops from vietnam 1969

Description/Provision: Following fourteen years of fighting against the spread of Communism in Asia, Nixon began withdrawing United States troops from Vietnam. This move was long-awaited by thousands of anti-war protesters both in the United States and Vietnam.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Although a relatively small initiative, the removal of the 25,000 troops activated Vietnamization, the process by which South Vietnam would stand alone in its fight against North Vietnam for the end of Communist government systems in the divided nation. The movement called to mind a type of twenty-first century Monroe Doctrine, as it promoted previous nonintervention policies in the United States.
Nixon Begins Withdraw of U.S. Troops from Vietnam, 1969

http://www.historylearningsite.co.uk/vietnamisation.htm

http://www.britannica.com/blogs/2009/01/2-the-vietnam-war-top-10-mistakes-by-us-presidents/

nixon s silent majority speech 1969

Description/Provision: Continuing his efforts to conclude the Vietnam War with “peace and honor” through Vietnamization, Nixon, in his “Silent Majority” Speech, called upon the American citizens who previously did not utter an opinion of the War to support his new measure.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Responding to Nixon’s message, “So tonight, to you, the great silent majority of my fellow Americans, I ask for your support; I pledged in my campaign for the Presidency to end the war in a way that we could win the peace… The more support I can have from the American people, the sooner that pledge can be redeemed,” the Americans initially “united for peace” and “united against defeat.” But, when the War turned toward an invasion of Cambodia in 1970, the Americans returned to their demonstrations and protests.
Nixon’s “Silent Majority” Speech, 1969

http://chnm.gmu.edu/hardhats/silent.html

http://www.c-spanvideo.org/program/153819-1

woodstock festival 1969

Description/Provision: Originally intended to be a two-day, 50,000 people rock and roll concert, the Woodstock Festival quickly transformed into a three-day, 500,000 people rock and roll concert. Musicians, including Jimi Hendrix, The Who and Grateful Dead, performed in the John Roberts, Joel Rosenman, Artie Kornfeld and Michael Lang-sponsored event in Bethel, New York.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: While its main focus was music, Woodstock incorporated elements of flower power, hippie culture and anti-war sentiments. The Festival served as proof that “half a million kids can get together for fun and music and have nothing but fun and music.”
Woodstock Festival, 1969

http://history1900s.about.com/od/1960s/p/woodstock.htm

http://www.flickriver.com/groups/woodstock69/pool/interesting/

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/august/18/newsid_2760000/2760911.stm

nixon doctrine 1969

Description/Provision: The Nixon Doctrine was Nixon’s official statement concerning the Vietnamization of Vietnam by the process of replacing United States troops with South Vietnamese troops on the frontline. It stated that the United States would maintain its commitment to its treaties with the Asian nations, especially with Vietnam and Iran, but only under the threat of nuclear war would Americans return to battlegrounds as a secondary source of protection. The Doctrine worked hand in hand with Nixon’s earlier withdrawal of 25,000 troops and his “Silent Majority” Speech.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: On account of the War claiming thousands of lives—both American and Vietnamese—since its date of beginning, self-removal from the foreign conflict proved necessary in order to promote progressively non-interceptive and internally reformative culture in the United States.
Nixon Doctrine, 1969

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/the-nixon-doctrine-is-announced

http://abcnews.go.com/WN/China/fullpage?id=5444365

http://www.worldpoliticsreview.com/articles/4106/the-nixon-doctrine-in-the-21st-century

d tente policy announced 1969

Description/Provision: Proclaimed in the midst of the Cold War (1945-1991), Détente was a Nixon and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger-inspired measure to promote “relaxation of tensions” between the United States and the Soviet Union. While more of an appeasement than a resolution to conflict, the Policy outlined that the United States would abide by all demands of the Soviet Union, unilaterally disarm, send subsidies to Moscow to fund its socialist economy and institute a direct hotline between Washington D.C. and the Soviet Union for cases requiring emergency contact.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Although the Détente Policy did not draw a close to the conflicts concerning the Cold War, it provided for the much-needed peaceful terms between the two Superpowers and established the precedent for the later SALT I, SALT II and Helsinki Agreement.
Détente Policy Announced, 1969

http://www.alternatehistory.com/discussion/showthread.php?p=4531992

http://www.americanthinker.com/2011/04/why_the_realists_are_wrong.html

u s troops invade cambodia on nixon s orders 1970

Description/Provision: Believing the Parrot’s Beak region of Cambodia to be a provisioning center for the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVM), the army of the Northern Vietnamese, and the National Liberation Front (NLF) or the Vietcong, the army of the Southern Vietnamese Communism supporters, Nixon ordered a secret invasion of the region by United States troops and Southern Vietnamese allies.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Many senior military officials, cabinet members, such as Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird, and governmental staffers, such as William Watts, Anthony Lake and Roger Morris, opposed Nixon’s order and, thus, proceeded to resign from their administrative positions. The invasion itself was intended to provide the United States with conflict-less circumstances to progress its policy of Vietnamization, but the intentions ultimately proved unfulfilled, as the troops merely captured provisions from the Cambodian headquarters, the Central Office for South Vietnam (COSVN). The COSVN was later relocated as a result of the invasion.
U.S. Troops Invade Cambodia on Nixon’s Orders, 1970

http://the-reaction.blogspot.com/2011_04_24_archive.html

http://www.historycommons.org/context.jsp?item=a04242670parrotsbeak&scale=5#a04242670parrotsbeak

students killed at kent state and jackson state universities 1970

Description/Provision: Following Nixon’s decision to invade Cambodia, a decision that contradicted his election platform to end the Vietnam War, students across the United States protested. Of these protests, Kent State University served as the location for a relatively large demonstration. Inaccurately recognizing the demonstration as chaotic, National Guardsmen shot and killed four unarmed students, Allison Krause, Jeffrey Glenn Miller, Sandra Lee Scheuer and Knox Schroeder.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: The four unprovoked shootings and killings, along with local racial discrimination, paved the way for the Jackson State University demonstration ten days later. National Guardsmen again reported to the scene and killed unarmed students, thereby spurring additional resentments for the War itself and the pro-Vietnam War government.
Students Killed at Kent State and Jackson State Universities, 1970

http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=126423778

http://chronicle.com/article/The-Times-They-Changed/65192/

http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2010-05-03-kent-state_N.htm

environmental protection agency epa established 1970

Description/Provision: Photographs from the Moon of the Earth prompted a new idealistic image of the world in which the Americans lived—despite the tragedies of war and racial discrimination, the Earth was a beautiful celestial body that depended on humans for fortification. Thereafter, with this acknowledgement, the American public called out for governmental assistance in protecting the defenseless Earth. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) was soon created to combine into one agency previous governmental efforts to care for the land.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Focusing on initiatives against environmental pollution and for limitation of pesticide use, the Agency promoted public involvement through the holding of the Wisconsin Senator Gaylord Nelson-inspired first annual Earth Day on April 22, 1970.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Established, 1970

http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/history/org/origins/1110_2.html

http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/history/org/origins/reorg.html

http://www.epa.gov/aboutepa/history/publications/print/origins.html

women permitted to play five player full court basketball 1971

Description/Provision: One year prior to the passing of Title IX, which prohibits the exclusion of individuals from participation in sports on the basis of sex, women were permitted to play five-player, full-court basketball in recreational settings, high school and college.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: This opportunity for women afforded for the first professional sport league for women, the Women’s Basketball League, and Senda Berenson becoming the first woman to enter the Naismith Memorial Basketball Hall of Fame (1985).
Women Permitted to Play Five-Player, Full-Court Basketball, 1971

http://www.wnba.com/about_us/jenkins_feature.html

http://www.ehow.com/about_6328808_history-women_s-professional-basketball.html

26 th amendment ratified 1971

Description/Provision: During a period when men too young to vote were of a reasonable age to be drafted into the Vietnam War, proponents of lowering the voting age to eighteen shouted, “Old enough to fight, old enough to vote.” Taking note of the ideologies of said proponents, Congress passed legislation granting all United States citizens the right to vote in elections upon fulfilling eighteen years of age.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: The Twenty-Sixth Amendment was the byproduct of Franklin D. Roosevelt’s suggestion during World War II (1941-1945), the 1965 Voting Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act of 1970. Adding the Amendment to the Constitution supported the democratic principles established by the Declaration of Independence (1776).
26th Amendment Ratified, 1971

http://www.dipity.com/alskrain722/Vietnam/

http://www.politico.com/news/stories/0610/39242.html

lt william calley court martialed for the my lai massacre 1971

Description/Provision: Reflecting on the My Lai Massacre (1968), the court at Fort Benning, Georgia found Lieutenant Calley of the American Division’s Eleventh Infantry Brigade, more specifically, the Charlie Company, guilty on several counts of unprovoked murder.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Although he was originally sentenced to hard labor and imprisonment for life, he only served three years of penalty as he was moved to house arrest on Nixon’s orders and permanently freed on bail in 1974.Having received Nixon’s Presidential Pardon thereafter, Calley returned to a life of virtual seclusion. In the subsequent years, the case continued to hold unprecedented controversy amongst those in politics and the media.
Lt. William Calley Court-Martialed for the My Lai Massacre, 1971

http://www.newsinhistory.com/blog/my-lai-massacre-lt-calley-convicted-murder

http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/march/29/newsid_2530000/2530975.stm

http://www.dipity.com/emandmeg/The-1960s/

pentagon papers published 1971

Description/Provision: Just as the anti-Vietnam War rallies had settled to a relative whisper, The New York Times published the Pentagon Papers, a collection of governmental documents that suggested that the Kennedy-Johnson administration had deprived the nation of information on foreign miscalculations, bureaucratic superciliousness and deceptive motivations.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: The Nixon Administration attempted to discontinue publication of the Papers to suppress the newly-erupted riots, but the Supreme Court ruled in favor of the newspaper publications. The Administrator also attempted to charge Daniel Ellsberg and Anthony J. Russo, the two who provided The Times with the Papers, on accounts of theft and conspiracy, but the charges, the byproducts of apparent “improper” governing, were immediately dropped.
Pentagon Papers Published, 1971

http://www.topsecretplay.org/index.php/content/courts

http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/history/A0838198.html

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/subjects/p/pentagon_papers/index.html

nixon s new economic program 1971

Description/Provision: Inheriting rapidly-growing inflation but a low unemployment rate, Nixon, though more interested in foreign affairs than economics, opted for a economic program that supported lowering the inflation from the Kennedy-Johnson Administration. In 1971, he enacted his New Economic Program, a program founded on Keynesian Economics theories of governmental involvement in the marketplace producing economic growth and prosperity, and his 90-Day Freeze Program, a program that forbade the adjustment of wages and/or prices for a ninety-day period.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: By the start of the next year, inflation had dropped, but unemployment grew heavily. To reverse the effects of the Programs on unemployment and maintain inflation rates, Nixon increased his government deficit from $11 billion to $25.5 billion and disassociated gold from the dollar.
Nixon’s New Economic Program, 1971

http://www.presidentprofiles.com/Kennedy-Bush/Richard-M-Nixon-nixonomics.html#b

http://www.vpr.net/episode/52659/40-years-after-national-cancer-act/

http://deadpresidentsdaily.blogspot.com/2007/08/august-15-1971-nixons-wage-and-price.html

new china policy announced 1971

Description/Provision: Acknowledging that, while the United States longed to defeat the Communist regimes of the Soviet Union and China, the two nations could be pitted against one another to ultimately reduce homeland toil, Nixon accepted an invitation to be the first president to visit China in 1972. He refused to dismiss his anti-Communism background but believed the trip would improve relations between the United States and China.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: The following year, Nixon ventured to China and, then, ventured to the Soviet Union capital of Moscow. The trips provided the incentive for revived period of Détente between the United States and the Communist Soviet Union and China.
New China Policy Announced, 1971

http://2bangkok.com/presidentialvisits.html

The American Pageant 12th Edition, Page 950

nixon signs strategic arms limitation treaty salt i with ussr 1972

Description/Provision:SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at every level and supplied for the addition of new submarine launched-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) launchers. This occurred only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had previously been dismantled. Eventually, an agreement was reached with the USSR to limit “strategic ballistic offensive arms.”

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: This greatly strengthened relations with the USSR. Although relations with Russia are not as strong as they could be, this Act, and later the agreement, gave way to a better relationship with the USSR.
Nixon Signs Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT I) with USSR, 1972

http://www.armscontrol.org/documents/salt

http://www.viaproject.ca/political-leaders/signing-of-strategic-arms-limitation-talks-treaty-salt-1/

revelation of watergate scandal begins 1972

Description/Provision: On June 17, 1972, five men broke into the Democratic National Committee headquarters at the Watergate complex. The FBI connected many payments to the burglars to a slush fund used by the Committee for the Re-Election of the President, which is a fundraising group for the Nixon campaign. As more evidence was found against the president's staff, which included many former staff members testifying against them in an investigation conducted by the Senate Watergate Committee, it was confirmed that in July 1973 that Nixon had a tape-recording system in his offices and he had recorded many conversations throughout his administration. These recordings from these tapes revealed that he had attempted to cover up the break-in. After a series of court battles, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the President had to hand over the tapes to government investigators. Eventually, he complied.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Because of this, Democrats gained five seats in the Senate and forty-nine in the House. Watergate also eventually led to Congress passing legislation making changes in rules for campaign financing. This scandal contributed to Congress' looking over the Freedom of Information Act (1974). It also resulted in laws requiring new financial disclosures by government officials, such as the Ethics in Government Act.
Revelation of Watergate Scandal Begins, 1972

http://nixon.archives.gov/thelife/apolitician/thepresident/index.php

http://www.mustseewashingtondc.com/attractions/watergate-complex.html

nixon visits communist china 1972

Description/Provision: In February of 1972, Nixon traveled to Beijing, Hangzhou and Shanghai. At the end of his trip, the United States and the Chinese Governments issued the Shanghai Communiqué, which was a statement of their foreign policy views and a document that has continued the basis of Sino-American mutual relations. One of the main results was a peaceful settlement of the Taiwan question by the Chinese.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: This visit was an extremely important step in formally normalizing relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China. It marked the first time a U.S. president had visited China. Formerly, the United States and China were considered enemies.
Nixon Visits Communist China, 1972

http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/china/sfeature/nixon.html

http://www.freewebs.com/lxpinx/nixon-china-visit_0.jpg

senate passes equal rights amendment 1972

Description/Provision: This Amendment was first proposed by the National Woman's Party in 1923. It was implemented to provide for the legal equality of the sexes and forbid discrimination on the basis of sex. Hawaii was the first state to ratify it, followed by thirty more states.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Because of this legislation, equality was no longer limited to males. Every citizen in the United States was to be treated the same and fairly. Many laws and regulations were passed later in the twentieth century to ensure equality in the United States.
Senate Passes Equal Rights Amendment, 1972

http://www.equalrightsamendment.org/overview.htm

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/equal-rights-amendment-passed-by-congress

john mitchell resigns as chairman of committee to re elect the president creep 1972

Description/Provision: Frederick LaRue and G. Gordon Liddy, two White House aids, attended a meeting for the Nixon Presidential Campaign, the Committee to Re-elect the President (CREEP). There, former Attorney General and current Chairman of CREEP John Mitchell proposed that the they would spend $250,000 to conduct an “intelligence gathering” operation against the Democratic Party for the upcoming elections. They also planted surveillance in the Democratic headquarters.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Because of this, the Watergate Scandal occurred, Nixon went under trial and Mitchell resigned to avoid the consequences of his proposal. One could argue that this also lead to Nixon resigning.
John Mitchell Resigns as Chairman of Committee to Re-Elect the President (CREEP), 1972

http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/JFKmitchellJ.htm

presidential candidate george wallace shot in laurel md 1972

Description/Provision:George Wallace was shot five times by Arthur Bremer while campaigning in Maryland on May 15, 1972. Many saw this extremely strange since, at a time, he was receiving high ratings in the opinion polls. Wallace was hit in the abdomen and chest and, when one of the bullets hit Wallace's spinal column, he was left paralyzed from the waist down for the rest of his life.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Because of this, tighter security measures were put in place. No Presidential candidate was allowed to go to any public event without security around him or her at all times.
Presidential Candidate George Wallace Shot in Laurel, MD, 1972

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/governor-george-wallace-shot

http://www.deseretnews.com/article/695226402/Shooter-of-Wallace-in-1972-leaves-prison-shuns-publicity.html?s_cid=s10

nixon begins second term as president 1973

Description/Provision: Nixon ran a three-way race composed of himself, Humphrey and Independent Candidate Governor George Wallace. Nixon beat Humphrey by nearly 500,000 votes, which was seven-tenths of a percentage point. He won 301 electoral votes to 191 for Humphrey and 46 for Wallace.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: The significance and impacts of this are clear. Because of this election, not only did the Watergate Scandal occur, but the Vietnam War ended, and the United States mended its relationship with China.
Nixon Begins Second Term as President, 1973

http://millercenter.org/president/keyevents/nixon

http://www.dipity.com/ctownsley/Democracy-and-Republicanism/

vice president agnew resigns gerald ford replaces 1973

Description/Provision: General Ford was the first person appointed to the vice presidency under the terms of the Twenty-fifth Amendment. He was appointed because Spiro Agnew had resigned.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Because he was appointed, when Nixon resigned from his presidency, Ford replaced him, causing him to become the thirty-eighth president.
Vice President Agnew Resigns, Gerald Ford Replaces, 1973

http://www.nndb.com/people/400/000022334/

roe v wade 1973

Description/Provision:  This was a decision by the United States Supreme Court on the extremely controversial issue of abortion. Deciding with the companion case of Doe v. Bolton, the Court ruled that a right to privacy under the due process clause in the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution should also be extended to a woman's decision of whether or not she wants to have an abortion. The Court also ruled that this right must be balanced with the state's two interests for regulating abortions, which include protecting prenatal life and protecting the woman's health. The Court then resolved this by compromise—combining state regulation of abortion with the woman's first trimester of pregnancy.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: This made an extension of women's rights. Because of this, women had more freedom of their bodies and how they want to live their lives.
Roe v. Wade, 1973

http://www.roevwade.org/

http://www.gcnlive.com/wp/2012/01/19/jake-mcmillian-roe-v-wade-anniversary/

wounded knee incident 1973

Description/Provision: In Wounded Knee, South Dakota on February 27, 1973, followers of the American Indian Movement (AIM) staged a 71-day occupation of the area. In response to the incident, Marshals Service volunteers decided to assist in a resolution. U.S. marshals, chief deputies, deputies and other support personnel also volunteered in the siege, providing for a hefty death toll.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact:The United States retained right to the Wounded Knee area and, in the site in which the battle was held, created a memorial and a cemetery to honor those who passed on both sides of the conflict.
Wounded Knee Incident, 1973

http://www.usmarshals.gov/history/wounded-knee/index.html

arab oil embargo 1973

Description/Provision: In October of 1973, Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) announced a decision to raise the price of oil by 70% to $5.11 a barrel. The next day, oil ministers agreed to the raise in price, as well as a cut in production by five percent from the pervious months output, and to continue to cut production in five percent increments until the economic and political objectives were met.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: The Oil Embargo Act changed the policy in the West towards the increased exploration of oil, energy conservation and more restrictive financial policy to better fight inflation.
Arab Oil Embargo, 1973

http://www.flags.net/OPEC.htm

http://www.ensec.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=155:35yearsafterthearaboilembargo&catid=83:middle-east&Itemid=324

existence of white house tapes is revealed 1973

Description/Provision: In July of 2007, the National Archives and Records Administration were given control of the Richard Nixon Library. The new Richard Nixon Library and Museum contains the release of 78,000 pages of previously restricted documents and 11½ hours of audio tape comprising 165 conversations. The conversations reveal Nixon discussing the 1972 Presidential and congressional elections and the President's decision to reorganize his administration by asking most of his staff to resign. The tapes also contain conversations with Nixon and Kissinger regarding negotiations to end the war in Vietnam.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: People around the world now understood everything behind Nixon’s presidency. Also, many new unspoken regulations were made based on this new information.
Existence of White House Tapes is Revealed, 1973

http://www.historycommons.org/timeline.jsp?nixon_and_watergate_tmln_watergate_campaign_conspiracy=nixon_and_watergate_tmln_watergate_tapes_and_documents&timeline=nixon_and_watergate_tmln

saturday night massacre 1973

Description/Provision: "Saturday Night Massacre" was the name given by political commentators to U.S. President Richard Nixon's executive dismissal of independent Archibald Cox and the resignations of Attorney General Elliot Richardson and Deputy Attorney General William Ruckelshaus in October of 1973 during the time of the Watergate Scandal.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: Nixon appointed a new special prosecutor, Leon Jaworski, who continued the investigation. It was later found out that he was involved in several corrupt activities. The Independent Counsel Act of 1978, which provided for a host of independent prosecutors, was a major result of the Saturday Night Massacre.
Saturday Night Massacre, 1973

http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/section/learning/general/onthisday/big/1020_big.gif

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/watergate/articles/102173-2.htm

war powers act 1973

Description/Provision:Hoping to undercut the president’s ability to concentrate power, Congress created the War Powers Act, a resolution that would check the president’s power in time of warfare. Nixon, however, fearing the loss of his presidential privileges, vetoed the Act.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact:Nixon’s veto of the Act added to speculators’ suspicions that Nixon was unfit for running the country, as he was perceived as power-hungry and power-corrupt. These sentiments contributed to the start of his impeachment hearings.
War Powers Act, 1973

http://loc.gov/law/help/war-powers.php

http://mediamythalert.wordpress.com/tag/all-the-presidents-men/

http://www.thecre.com/fedlaw/legal22/warpow.htm

impeachment hearings begin 1974

Description/Provision: The House Judiciary Committee began the impeachment hearings against Nixon in July of 1974. The Supreme Court ruled that Nixon was required to provide transcripts of the missing tapes and evidence that he tried to cover up the Watergate break-in.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact: The trials and court hearings resulted in Nixon resigning from office. Ford later replaced him.
Impeachment Hearings Begin, 1974

http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history/house-begins-impeachment-of-nixon

http://oralhistory.clerk.house.gov/interviewee.html?name=west-benjamin&view=images

nixon resigns 1974

Description/Provision: Nixon resigned from office for his lack of political support from the people, as well as for his impeachment. He resigned on August 8, 1974. It was later revealed that he left office only under the condition that Ford would grant him a full pardon on his behalf.

  • Overall Significance and Future Impact:The resignation was seen as Nixon admitting to his crimes and his partaking in Watergate, thus extending the legacy of a nation founded on honesty and integrity.
Nixon Resigns, 1974

http://www.baltimoresun.com/news/maryland/history/bs-nixon-resigns,0,51101.photo

http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/national/longterm/watergate/articles/080974-3.htm

quotations

“After Nixon resigned in 1974, he engaged in a very aggressive war with history, attempting to wipe out the Watergate stain and memory. Happily, history won, largely because of Nixon's tapes.”

-Bob Woodward

Quotations

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/nixon.html

quotations1

“He was the most dishonest individual I ever met in my life. President Nixon lied to his wife, his family, his friends, longtime colleagues in the US Congress, lifetime members of his own political party, the American people and the world.”

-Barry Goldwater

Quotations

http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/h1948.html

quotations2

“I contend that, in spite of all that might be said about Watergate, Richard Nixon was good for the poor people of America.”

-Tony Campolo

Quotations

http://www.brainyquote.com/quotes/keywords/nixon.html

quotations3

“He could shake your hand and stab you in the back at the same time.”

-Hunter S. Thompson

Quotations

http://byliner.com/hunter-s-thompson/stories/he-was-a-crook

overall significance
Positives

Negatives

Ordered United States troops to invade Cambodia

Pardoned Lieutenant Calley following the My Lai Massacre

Attempted to revoke individuals’ right to the press in the conflict surrounding the publication of the Pentagon Papers

Partook in illegal surveillance of confidential conversations in the Watergate Scandal

Vetoed Congress’ War Powers Act to limit the power of the president

  • Withdrew United States troops from the war in Vietnam
  • Promoted Vietnamization through his Silent Majority Speech
  • Offered protection from nuclear war for Asian nations via the Nixon Doctrine
  • Initiated his 90-Day Freeze Program to control inflation
  • Visited Communist China to establish positive foreign relations
Overall Significance

http://www.mcclatchydc.com/2007/11/28/22163/democrats-health-plans-echo-nixons.html

the end

Blake Lubinski and Kendall Treece

January 2012

US History Period 7

The End