Climate change and gender: Framing and sentiment in the social media domain Dr. Ulrike Gretzel University of Wollongong
Framing • Frame = central organizing idea • Issue-definition • Making certain aspects more salient than others • Mass media actively set the frames of reference that readers or viewers use to interpret and discuss public events/issues (Tuchman, 1978) • Frames influence opinions by stressing specific values, facts, and other considerations, endowing them with greater apparent relevance to the issue than they might appear to have under an alternative frame (Nelson et al., 1997)
Audience Frame • Cognitive structure • Schema used for interpretation
Climate Change Frames • Alarmism • Spatial frames – international issue • Lack of scientific fact, focus on human-interest stories • Focus on extreme weather events – language of terror leading to policy paralysis (Hulme, 2009) • Partisan issue
Social media • Definition: = a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010).
Citizen media • Participatory media • Democratic media • Networks of influence
Research Question • How are issues related to climate change/sustainability and gender conceptualized/framed by different groups/media?
Climate Change and Gender Issue Space • What is the issue space? • What are the frames? • Frames salient in different spheres
Study 1 • Qualitative study of how sustainability activists and scientists frame contributions and challenges related to a gender perspective on climate change/sustainability • 78 respondents
Challenges for Women Leaders • It’s a men’s world • Discrimination • Stereotypes • Underrepresentation • Voices not heard • Not being taken seriously/lack of respect • Lack of access • Lack of financial resources • Lack of knowledge/education • Gender-specific roles/obligations • Lack of role models
Contributions of Women • Different perspectives: • Time horizon • Holistic • Grounded in direct experience • Traits • Approaches • Capabilities • Priorities • Authority • Knowledge/awareness • Strength in numbers
Study 2 • Climate change and gender frames in news media and social media sphere • Mediawatch on Climate Change • Post Rio +20 (June 2012)
Climate Change Coverage News Fortune 1000 Social Media
General Climate Change Coverage Social Media News Media
Conclusion • Complex issue space • Clearly different frames present • Who is represented in the social media sphere? • More research needed on how frames come about (e.g. how influential is social network, attendance of specific meetings, etc.)