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Dr. Ulrike Gretzel University of Wollongong

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  1. Climate change and gender: Framing and sentiment in the social media domain Dr. Ulrike Gretzel University of Wollongong

  2. Agenda-setting

  3. Framing • Frame = central organizing idea • Issue-definition • Making certain aspects more salient than others • Mass media actively set the frames of reference that readers or viewers use to interpret and discuss public events/issues (Tuchman, 1978) • Frames influence opinions by stressing specific values, facts, and other considerations, endowing them with greater apparent relevance to the issue than they might appear to have under an alternative frame (Nelson et al., 1997)

  4. Audience Frame • Cognitive structure • Schema used for interpretation

  5. Climate Change Frames • Alarmism • Spatial frames – international issue • Lack of scientific fact, focus on human-interest stories • Focus on extreme weather events – language of terror leading to policy paralysis (Hulme, 2009) • Partisan issue

  6. Social media • Definition: = a group of Internet-based applications that build on the ideological and technological foundations of Web 2.0, and that allow the creation and exchange of user-generated content (Kaplan & Haenlein, 2010).

  7. Political Power of Social Media

  8. Citizen media • Participatory media • Democratic media • Networks of influence

  9. Climate change + animal x

  10. Climate change + animal x

  11. Climate Change + animal x

  12. Research Question • How are issues related to climate change/sustainability and gender conceptualized/framed by different groups/media?

  13. Global Women Scholars Network

  14. Climate Change and Gender Issue Space • What is the issue space? • What are the frames? • Frames salient in different spheres

  15. Study 1 • Qualitative study of how sustainability activists and scientists frame contributions and challenges related to a gender perspective on climate change/sustainability • 78 respondents

  16. Challenges for Women Leaders • It’s a men’s world • Discrimination • Stereotypes • Underrepresentation • Voices not heard • Not being taken seriously/lack of respect • Lack of access • Lack of financial resources • Lack of knowledge/education • Gender-specific roles/obligations • Lack of role models

  17. Contributions of Women • Different perspectives: • Time horizon • Holistic • Grounded in direct experience • Traits • Approaches • Capabilities • Priorities • Authority • Knowledge/awareness • Strength in numbers

  18. Study 2 • Climate change and gender frames in news media and social media sphere • Mediawatch on Climate Change • Post Rio +20 (June 2012)

  19. Platform

  20. Climate Change Coverage News Fortune 1000 Social Media

  21. General Climate Change Coverage Social Media News Media

  22. General Issue Space & Sentiment in Social Media

  23. Gender: News Media

  24. Climate Change & Gender: News Media

  25. Climate Change & Gender: News Media

  26. Gender: Eco-NGOs

  27. Climate Change & Gender: Eco-NGOs

  28. Climate Change & Gender: Eco-NGOs

  29. Gender: Fortune 1000

  30. Climate Change & Gender: Fortune 1000

  31. Climate Change & Gender: Fortune 1000

  32. Gender: Social Media

  33. Climate Change & Gender: Social Media

  34. Climate Change &Gender: Social Media

  35. Conclusion • Complex issue space • Clearly different frames present • Who is represented in the social media sphere? • More research needed on how frames come about (e.g. how influential is social network, attendance of specific meetings, etc.)

  36. Questions? ugretzel@uow.edu.au