GLOBALIZATION. Globalization. Globalization refers to "the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole" (R. Robertson, Globalization , 1992: 8). Three forces Drive Globalization:.
Globalization • Globalizationrefers to "the compression of the world and the intensification of consciousness of the world as a whole" • (R. Robertson, Globalization, 1992: 8).
Three forces Drive Globalization: • Universalism- universalism seeks truths that apply to all times and places. (Global Village, M. McLuhan) 2. Imperialism-the notion that developed nations can help and exploit less nations.
Capitalism-the search for surplus value- Market forces= a drive to find cheaper and more efficient ways of producing goods for sale and consumption.
THE THEME • Globalization- new historical era-new relations between people and institutions -a new type of interdependence. • The main features of this new era are: • the emergence of a single transnational economy; • the weakness of the nation-state; and • the spread of a global culture and global consciousness.
Globalization: Is it Modernization? • It is the process by which ideas, beliefs and practices cross national boundaries and tie individuals to world wide processes.
Key Dimensions of Modernization • a. The decline of traditional communities • b. The expansion of personal choice • c. Increasing social diversity • d. Future orientation and a growing awareness of time
Globalization forces • Three forces Drive Globalization: • UNIVERSALISM • IMPERIALISM • CAPITALISM
1. Universalism- • See McDonaldization
UNIVERSALITY is not universalism Universality is a left wing movement… • A philosophy concerning the provision of the benefits of the welfare state which declares that all citizens have access regardless of their need. • For example, all citizens receive the same access to health care in Canada, regardless of their income.
Universality vs. Globalization • The underlying principle is that less powerful citizens can be more easily deprived of benefits, • Benefits can be more easily reduced, • Not received by most people in the population. • The principle of universality has been seriously eroded by globalization.
Trade agreements • Multilateral trade agreements provide corporations with powerful legal recourse. • Privatisation also undermines water quality and ecological sustainability. • I.e Water companies work to weaken water quality regulations and environmental standards
Monopolies and Gov’ts • Private operators are not accountable to the public • Privatisation can reduce accountability and local control.
For example • Governments make long-term deals with the water companies, granting them exclusive distribution rights, thus sanctioning monopolies./
Mel Hutig, The Betrayal of Canada Mulroney Betrayed Canada...speech in 1983 stated: "Free trade with the United States is like sleeping with an elephant. It's terrific until the elephant twitches, and if you role over you are a dead man" • (Thunder Bay, 1983)
Mulroney-Gave away the store... • 1. Bill C22 weakened generic drug laws. • in the name of profit • 2. FIRA and National Energy Program • `guaranteed access' • 3. Secret deals over Softwood Lumber. • 4. Secret deals over the value of the Canadian dollar.
4 Free Trade Implications(M. Hurtig) • .1.Unemployment-4% points higher-although recession will end-"but high unemployment, underutilized capacity, and a lower standard of living overall" • Underemployment-part-time, temporary, contractual jobs.
2. Deindustrialization- • 2.Deindustrialization-a warehouse economy-worse than branch plant....GDP now 16% from 19% before FTA • 3.Jobs Heading South -"blind doctrinaire adherence to age old Adam Smith economics"
Foriegn ownership- • 4. Foriegn ownership-1.fewer jobs • 2.poorer jobs • 3.less diverse exports • 4. fewer professionals
Theorizing Globalism: • Globalism -a transnational political mobilization that focuses individual energies on global issues rather than on the nation-state.
Global consciousness where opinions are formed and issues are resolved by hammering out global interests. • UN, World Bank, INTERPOL…
History of Economic Globalization • Globalization foundations include: • The expansion of the West and its search for new markets
Globalization Foundations 2. The uneven development of industry and the need for raw material from places far away from where the goods are manufactured 3. ( World Wars 1&2) Produced need to secure stability throughout the world
4. American fears of Japan whose development of the small car and technology pushed the Americans into new level of competition (late 1970’s) • e. Oil Crisis 1979 5. 1980’s Neo liberal (conservative) Movement
Global economy entails: • The global economy involves the following processes: • 1. International economic institutions such as the IMF, World Bank • 2. Transnational corporations such as IBM, Nissan, McDonalds
3. World financial markets in New York, London, Toronto and elsewhere • 4. Global spread of new production practices and consumption patterns
5. Competitive economic nationalism, as govts attempt to improve their own economic positions in the world • 6. World wide division of labour and class system
Globalization Characteristics • Globalization has been called Americanism. • Standardization of culture under corporate control.
When Corps Rule the World 3. Nation statesare undermined by multinational corporations and a standard way of doing things become prevalent throughout the world. 4.Globalization -linked to the exploitation of third world countries by the first world.
(neo)Liberal Interpretation Adam Smith developed first developed the notion of individualism and the division of labour
To A. Smith, Capitalism is a mutually beneficial system consistent with human nature. (See Hobbesian view of man) Individuals seek to earn a wage or make a profit An interdependent, mutually beneficial system of exchange.
Marx on Capitalism • Marx believed that capitalism is ultimately a system of exploitation • Marx believed workers receive a pittance wage compared to the owners of the means of production
Marx believed in Social Transformation 3. Marx believed that Socialism would replace capitalism 4. Liberal critics argue that Socialism is unrealistic, others believe it may still happen
Conflict Interpretation • . 5. Contractions of capitalism =(surplus value) • 6. Surplus value requires worker exploitation. • 7. Maximization of profit requires bourgeoisie to go further abroad for profit.
Conflict Interpretation • 8. Economic downturns inevitable • 9. Attempts to correct system will ultimately fail. • 10. Capitalism sows the seedsof its own destruction.
THE RESULT: will be improved economic order-interests of all men better served. SOCIALISM OR • SOCIAL TRANSFORMATION or True communism
FOR MARXIST/Conflict Theorists: • THE GLOBAL VILLAGE is THE GLOBAL EXPLOITATIVE MARKET • FREE ENTERPRISE IS AN ILLUSION’ • FREE FOR WHO?
Globalization debate • The is significant debatearound globalization from different sociological perspectives.. • SF-modernization and adaptation • Conflict theory-dialectical change towards end of capitalism-its last crisis • Symbolic Interactionism-rationalization
Key featuresGlobalization • It is a process that both connects and stimulates awareness of connection. • Globalization dissolves the autonomy of actors and practices in contemporary world order.
Functionalists- see Davis and Moore • Functionalists and conservatives are in favour of trickle down economics. • The free market will take care of itself.
Structural functionalism 3. A corporation who is found to excessively exploit will lose favour with the consumer - market correction. • Hierarchy is inevitable and functional. • Economy is one social institution-it is adaptive
Symbolic Interactionists (Weber) • Globalization=Iron cage of capitalism • Increase in formal rationality of bureaucracy I.e. monopoly capitalism • Decrease in substantive rationality, loss of human control • See G. Ritzer on Mcdonaldization of culture
Logo culture • The symbols signs and language are characterized by Corporate Logos • Logos affect consciousness.
POST MODERNISM • IS HIGHLY CRITICAL OF THE ENTIRE CONCEPT OF MODERNIZATION. • Is society `modernizing’ or is it merely going round and round…fragmented, multiple realities, multiple discourses?.
Summary • GLOBALIZATION is key issue in sociology today. • Sociological theorists-structural functional, conflict and symbolic interactionist debate its significance in terms of modernization
Globalization and Capitalism • The confrontation of their world views means that globalization involves "comparative interaction of different forms of life" (Robertson: 27).
Global interdependence and consciousness of the world as a whole precede the advent of capitalist modernity
Economy Pre-industrial to Industrial • 1900-1920-most jobs in agriculture • Starting in 1920-more services through trucking, mail delivery, telephone communication, financial assistance. • Other services-medical care, educational instruction, demand for service workers • Manual recording, data entry performed by women, paperwork, order placement
1941 and 1951 • Between 1941 and 1951, for example women married in workforce grew from 12.7% to 30% to 47% by 1961 • Today comparatively speaking women continue to do more work than men-double day, part-time job-86 hours (paid and unpaid) to men 74 hours/
21st century • Increased competition among cities to attract capital • Businesses for generating employment and sources of undermine tax revenues • Widening inequalitiesbetween groups and individuals, • Discrepancies in the level of essential services provided to citizens