Briefing on Outcome-Based Education (OBE) Syazrin Aiza Abdul Hanif Faculty of Professional Studies 25 April 2012
Objectives The objectives of this session are to: • Share the OBE philosophy and principles. • Improve the confidence level among KPTM lecturers in implementing OBE in their departments. • Apply outcome-based approach in designing academic programmes, courses and assessments.
Learning Outcomes At the end of this session, participants/lecturers will be able to: • Explain the concept of OBE. • List the Programme Learning Outcomes (PLO) in their respective faculty. • List the eight (8) Learning Domains (MQF) of MQA correctly. • List the seven (7) Transferable Skills correctly. • List the MQA Programme Standards in nine (9) Areas of Evaluation in Quality Assurance. • Determine the appropriate delivery methods, learning & teaching strategies and assessment methods at course level. • Prepare (COPPA) documents for their respective courses. • Adapt constructive alignment for continual improvement at course level.
Briefing Outlines • Principles of OBE. • Learning Outcomes (LO) at programme and course level. • MQA Standards for Quality Assurance. • Transferable Skills. • Student Learning Time (SLT) and Credit System. • Delivery Methods, Learning and Teaching Strategies/Activities, Assessment Strategies
The Way Forward • Towards MQF – basis for quality assurance of higher education. • In line with internationally recognized good practices • Areas of evaluation in MQF
What is OBE? • a model of education • a student-centred learning philosophy • focuses on graduates attributes after completing an academic programme • focuses on empirically measuring students performance. • emphasis is on measured outcomes • does not specify or require any particular style of teaching or learning • outcomes emphasise on capacity rather than just on content knowledge • learning process is capacity building rather than content delivery • requires that students demonstrate that they have learned the required skills and content
Programme Objectives (PO) 4-5 Years After Graduation Upon Graduation Programme Learning Outcomes (PLO) Upon Subject Completion OBE WHAT? WHEN? Course Learning Outcomes(CLO)
OBE Model Hierarchy KPTM 1. Programme educational objectives (PEOs) are developed from a number of sources including professional accreditation bodies, employer groups, the MQF educational principles and the professional experience of staff teaching in the discipline. 2. The programme outcomes(PO) for a diploma and bachelor degree are clearly written statements about the knowledge, skills and attitudes of its graduates. It should link to the PEOs. 3. From these PO’s,(CO) the curriculum of the course is constructed, the subdivision of structure into units is made, and the outcomes specific to each of the units are derived.
OBC (Curriculum) OBLT (Learning & Teaching) OBA (Assessment) The Process Flow(Backward Design Process) OBE (Education) What the students should achieve How to make the students achieve the objectives Process through which the students can achieve the objectives How to measure what the students have achieved
OBE OBE addresses the following questions: • What do you want the students to learn? • Why do you want them to learn? • How can you best make them learn it? • How will you know what they have learnt? • Course content • Intended Learning Outcomes (ILOs) • Learning and Teaching Activities & Methods (LTAs) • Assessments
OBE Principles • Clarity of focus - focus on what the students can do successfully.(Adakah pelajar tahu dengan jelas sebelum mereka memulakan pembelajaran apa yang mereka sepatutnya tahu dan boleh buat apabila selesai pembelajaran?) • Designing Down - the curriculum design starts with a clear definition on what the students will achieve upon completing their formal education.(Adakah kurikulum telah digubal bermula dari hasil pembelajaran dengan cara yang sistematik supaya laluan untuk mencapainya jelas?) 3. High Expectation – the lecturers set a high standard of achievement on the students.(Adakah harapan dan cabaran untuk berjaya diberikan kepada semua pelajar secara saksama – tiada bell curve? 4. Extended Opportunity – the lecturers provide enough opportunities for the students to succeed.(Adakah pelajar diberi lebih dari satu peluang untuk mencapai standard yang ditetapkan?) • Clarity of focus - focus on what the students can do successfully.(Adakah pelajar tahu dengan jelas sebelum mereka memulakan pembelajaran apa yang mereka sepatutnya tahu dan boleh buat apabila selesai pembelajaran?) • Designing Down - the curriculum design starts with a clear definition on what the students will achieve upon completing their formal education.(Adakah kurikulum telah digubal bermula dari hasil pembelajaran dengan cara yang sistematik supaya laluan untuk mencapainya jelas?) • 3. High Expectation – the lecturers set a high standard of achievement on the students.(Adakah harapan dan cabaran untuk berjaya diberikan kepada semua pelajar secara saksama – tiada bell curve?) • 4. Extended Opportunity – the lecturers provide enough opportunities for the students to succeed.(Adakah pelajar diberi lebih dari satu peluang untuk mencapai standard yang ditetapkan?)
Impact on Quality Assurance Application of MQF 14 Impact on QA Documents Learning Outcomes Credit System Teaching and Learning MQF in Programmes.Roz.Roadshow
How Does MQF Affect Teaching-Learning? Teacher - centered Student - centered Mapping of learning outcomes necessary Learning Outcomes is the Learning Target Course Objective is the Learning Target No mapping of learning outcomes Student independent Learning Time Calculated Contact hours Reflects Credit value Total SLT reflects Credit value Student Independent Learning Not Calculated MQF in Programmes.Roz.Roadshow
Learning Outcomes at Programme Level (MQF Para 15) – LO Domains 16 1 2 3 Knowledge (Pengetahuan ilmu bidang) Social skills and responsibilities (Kemahiran dan kebertanggungjawaban sosial) Practical Skills (Kemahiran praktikal) 4 5 Values, attitudes and professionalism (Nilai, sikap dan keprofesionalan) Communication, leadership and team skills (Komunikasi, kepimpinan dan kemahiran berpasukan) 6 7 Problem solving and scientific skills (Penyelesaian masalah dan kemahiran saintifik) Information management and lifelong learning skills (Pengurusan maklumat dan kemahiran pembelajaran sepanjang hayat) 8 Managerial and entrepreneurial skills (Kemahiran mengurus dan keusahawanan)
Benefits of LO • LO can: • help to guide students in their learning in that they explain what is expected of them, in turn helping them to succeed in their studies. • help staff to focus on exactly what they want students to achieve in terms of both knowledge and skills. • provide a useful guide to inform potential candidates and employers about the general knowledge and understanding that a graduate will possess.
Programme LO • A long term outcome (refer to MQA Domain) Start programme outcomes (PLO) with the phrase: ‘A graduate from this programme will be able to …’
Course/Subject LO • Should specify the minimum acceptable standard for a student to be able to pass a subject or course (threshold level). • Use action verbs so that students are able to demonstrate that they have learned or achieved the outcome. Start course outcomes (CLO) with the phrase: ‘On successful completion of the course, students will be able to …’
Learning Outcomes at Course Level • Use Bloom’s Taxonomy – it provides 6 levels of cognitive domains. • Under what circumstances will the learning take place – plan the assessment and evaluation of the LO. • 3. Assessment Criteria – as a prove that LO have been achieved
Bloom’s Cognitive Domain • Knowledge • Understanding • Application • Analysis • Synthesis • Evaluation
Examples of LO (1 & 2) • Knowledge & understanding • On successful completion of the module, students will be able to: • Explain the meaning, character and identity of place, and how landscape is constructed. • Identify the theories of learning that are implicit in their current approach to education. • Discuss Romantic poetry in relation to the major themes of Romanticism. • Describe the underlying principles governing gene transmission and expression.
Examples of LO (3) • Intellectual (thinking) skills: application • On successful completion of the module, students will be able to: • Apply Kolb’s model of learning to the design of a teaching programme. • Illustrate, using phonetics, the problem of stigmatism in children.
Examples of LO (4) • Intellectual (thinking) skills: analysis • On successful completion of the module, students will be able to: • Appraise the key issues of market segmentation in a brewing industry case study. • Compare Hofstede’s theories of culture with those of Trompenaars and Hampden-Turner.
Examples of LO (5) • Intellectual (thinking) skills: synthesis • On successful completion of the module, students will be able to: • Create a set of criteria to assess Home Office implementation of immigration rules. • Design an engine component that conforms to the following criteria…
Examples of LO (6) • Intellectual (thinking) skills: evaluation • On successful completion of the module, students will be able to: • Explain the reasoning behind their allocation of scarce resources in the treatment of patients in an Accident and Emergency setting. • Prioritize conclusions they reached from an analysis of paint techniques, giving reasons.
Characteristics of a Good Course Outcome • should be mapped to the learning domain in Blooms or other Taxonomy . • •Must state the major skills, knowledge, attitude or ability that students will acquire. • •expressed in terms of measurable and/or observable behaviors (hint: ask yourself how you would test the outcome). • •more general than objectives.
Avoid • KLUA – AF verbs (knowledge, learn, understand, appreciate, aware, familiarize) • learning outcomes which are too broad in scope, such as ‘Recall the fundamental concepts of , Mechanical and Electrical Engineering.’ • learning outcomes which are too narrow in scope, such as ‘State the six categories in Bloom’s Taxonomy.’ • overloading your modules with too much ‘content’:knowledge and understanding outcomes emphasize what the students will be able to comprehend and explain, but this isn’t as important as being able to use the information through application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation.
Transferable Skills 1. Critical Thinking and Problem Solving Skills (CT) (Pemikiran Kritis dan Kemahiran Menyelesaikan Masalah) 2. Communication Skills (CS) (Kemahiran Berkomunikasi) 3. Teamwork Skills (TS) (Kemahiran Berpasukan) 4. Life-long Learning and Information Management (LL) (Pembelajaran Berterusan dan Pengurusan Maklumat) 5. Entrepreneurial Skills (ES) (Kemahiran Keusahawanan) • Ethics and Moral Professionalism (EM) (Etika dan Moral Profesional) 7. Leadership (LS) (Kemahiran Kepimpinan)
Lecturer-Centred to Student-Centred (incorporating SLT) 34 Unaccounted for in the present system * Using the Proposed student independent learning in relation (Slide 17) MQF in Programmes.Roz.Roadshow
Planning MQF Credits 35 Qualification Levels & Minimum Graduating Credits Teaching-Learning Activities MQF CREDITS NOTIONAL LEARNING TIME (1 Credit = 40 notional hours) SLT according to Student Band MQF in Programmes.Roz.Roadshow
Credit = A credit the agreed-upon value used to measure a student workload in terms of learning time required to complete course units, resulting in learning outcomes’ (UNESCO, 2004) the measurement of students’ academic load 36 Teaching Learning Activities Achievement of Learning Outcomes Teaching/Learning + Assessment Demonstration Lecture Project Work Study Tour Tutorial Presentation Case study Directed reading Assignments e.g. 4 800 notional SLT = 120 credits Laboratory Revision E-Learning Clinical Total SLT 40 Credit Work attachment Studio work Group Discussion Student Learning Time (SLT) Group Assignment Field Work ResearchProject Examination Industrial training MQF in Programmes.Roz.Roadshow
Factors In Calculating Credit Face to Face / Guided Learning Time + Student Self Learning Time + Total Assessment Time MQF in Programmes.Roz.Roadshow
Student Categories and Learning Time 38 Very Diligent - 55 Least Diligent - 40 Diligent - 48 Good = diligent; weak = least diligent MQF in Programmes.Roz.Roadshow
39 Examples 39 Roz. MQF Credit System: Practice, Guidelines and Procedure MQF in Programmes.Roz.Roadshow
8 hours a day 48 hours a week 816 hours for 17-weeks* 20.4 credits per semester 5.8 semesters for a 120 credits bachelors Recommended Student Learning Time (For a diligent student & 17-weeks Semester) 40 *17 weeks = 14 weeks of teaching, 1 week each for semester break, study break and examination MQF in Programmes.Roz.Roadshow
Proposed student independent learning time 41 MQF in Programmes.Roz.Roadshow
The 5-Stage OBE Implementation Stage 1 Understand the big picture Main aim is to achieve CQI Stage 2 Set Objectives and the Outcomes Identify Domains and Taxonomies Stage 3 Map PO – PLO Map Courses – PLO Map CLO – PLO Stage 4 Delivery of OBE Courses Assessment of OBE Courses Stage 5 Closing the loops (reflect & act)
OBE = Holistic education! • It will reflect who students are! should include all 3 domains. • Academic and affective = balanced! • Employer should know where to put their employee / workers to explore their full potential. Cognitive Affective (Transferable Skill) Psychomotor (Practical Skill)
Delivery, Learning &Teaching and Assessment Sample • CLO • PLO • LTAs • Assessment Area 17 COPPA Course Document APPENDIX F CO-MQF-TS-LT-Assmt Matrix
More on LTAs and Assessment What learning activities will best prepare students to do well on the assessments? Reading Writing Research Discussion Lecture Problem-solving Case studies Projects Presentations Building web sites Group activities Role-play Simulations
Analysis Analysis Analysis Alumni Missions Course Outcomes Program Outcomes Program Aims Visions Stakeholders Advisory committee OBE Evaluation (Closing the Loop) Assessment Assessment Assessment CQI CQI CQI
Summary OBE reflects a belief that the best way for individuals and organizations (yes! US) to get where we are going is: • first to determine where we are (HERE) • next, determine where we want to be (THERE) • then, plan backwards to determine the best way to get from HERE to THERE. • Finally, use the plan so that we can reach THERE.
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