Two Contrasting Periods: The Restoration and Romanticism
The Restoration and Eighteenth Century 1660-1785
The Time: 1660-1785 • 1666: Great Fire burns 80% of London • 1681: Woman flogged in London for becoming involved in politics • 1689: Parliament passes Bill of Rights and Toleration Act • 1692: Salem witch trials • 1700: Life expectancy in England is 36 years • 1707: Great Britain formed Scotland + England • 1721: After defeating Sweden, Russia has become a great power under Peter the Great • 1725: “The Golden Age of Piracy” ends • 1750: Benjamin Franklin links lightning and electricity • 1769: Father Junipero Serra, a Franciscan, has become head of missions in Lower California • 1776: Declaration of Independence
Enlightenment • Enlightenment/Age of Reason: • Human intellect could discover natural laws that would solve social, political, economical problems • Emphasized intellect over feeling • Empiricism: scientific method, learn things by observation and experiment
Definitions Styles Essays Rhymed couplets Satire Genre that uses irony, wit, and sarcasm to expose humanity’s vices and foibles, giving impetus to change or reform through ridicule. Parody Imitates a literary style for comic effect, usually to criticize that work, author, or style. Epistle Novel Witty, emphasized social interaction More openly bawdy • Emulated ancient Greek and Roman texts • Made us of classical forms and allusions and promoted ideals of harmony, tradition, and reason Neoclassic Literature
Stuff Happening: 1785-1832 1783: Treaty of Paris ends American Revolution 1788: Great Britain begins sending convicts to Australia, rather than America 1789: Storming of the Bastille! 1791: Mozart dies in Vienna 1799: Napoleon. 1800: World Population about one billion 1801: United Kingdom formed 1802: Slave rebellion in Haiti 1803: Louisiana Purchase, Morphine derived from opium 1807: UK outlaws slave trade across Atlantic 1811: King George III is declared insane – Regency Period 1815: Napoleon defeated at Waterloo 1829: Scotch Tape invented 1830: First railway station in US opens, lawn mower and sewing machine invented
Terms Explained romance: the actions and feelings of people who are in love, especially behavior which is very caring or affectionate. Romance: episodic narratives concerned with the exploits of knights, chivalry, and courtly love (generally Medieval) Romanticism: a literary style and philosophy focused on subjective experience, nature, imagination, and the individual (late 1700s)
The Romantic Creed “Poetry is the spontaneous overflow of powerful feelings: it takes its origin from emotion recollected in tranquility.” • William Wordsworth, The Preface to Lyrical Ballads
Tenets of Romanticism • Nature is beautiful, powerful, untamable • Humanity must look to Nature to understand itself • Emotions are important • Poetry should be about common people! • Written in common language, accessible • Common people are closer to nature, less artificial
Romanticism is Reactionary! Pre-Romanticism • Industrialization and Urbanization • Enlightenment: Reason over Emotion • Enlightenment: All about the over-educated • American and French Revolutions Romanticism • Industry is artificial, Nature is Real • Emotion over Reason! • The common people are Real, should have voice • The commoners do have power!
A Lady’s Dressing RoomJonathan Swift A Restoration Poem! FIVE Hours, (and who can do it less in?) By haughty Celia spent in Dressing; The Goddess from her Chamber issues, Array'd in Lace, Brocades and Tissues. Strephon, who found the Room was void, And Betty otherwise employ'd; Stole in, and took a strict Survey, Of all the Litter as it lay; Whereof, to make the Matter clear, An Inventory follows here.
And first a dirty Smock appear'd, Beneath the Arm-pits well besmear'd. Strephon, the Rogue, display'd it wide, And turn'd it round on every Side. On such a Point few Words are best, And Strephon bids us guess the rest; But swears how damnably the Men lie, In calling Celia sweet and cleanly. Now listen while he next produces The various Combs for various Uses, Fill'd up with Dirt so closely fixt, No Brush could force a way betwixt. ***
Hard by a filthy Bason stands, Fowl'd with the Scouring of her Hands; The Bason takes whatever comes The Scrapings of her Teeth and Gums, A nasty Compound of all Hues, For here she spits, and here she spues. But oh! it turn'd poor Strephon's Bowels, When he beheld and smelt the Towels, Begumm'd, bematter'd, and beslim'd With Dirt, and Sweat, and Ear-Wax grim'd.
No Object Strephon's Eye escapes, Here Pettycoats in frowzy Heaps; Nor be the Handkerchiefs forgot All varnish'd o'er with Snuff and Snot. The Stockings why shou'd I expose, Stain'd with the Marks of stinking Toes; Or greasy Coifs and Pinners reeking, Which Celia slept at least a Week in? A Pair of Tweezers next he found To pluck her Brows in Arches round, Or Hairs that sink the Forehead low, Or on her Chin like Bristles grow. ***
Why Strephon will you tell the rest? And must you needs describe the Chest?... For Strephonventur'd to look in, Resolv'd to go thro' thick and thin; He lifts the Lid, there needs no more, He smelt it all the Time before. As from within Pandora's box, When Epimetheusop'd the Locks, A sudden universal Crew Of humane Evils upwards flew; He still was comforted to find That Hope at last remain'd behind; So Strephon lifting up the lid, To view what in the chest was hid. The Vapours flew from out the Vent, But Strephon cautious never meant The Bottom of the Pan to grope, And fowl his Hands in Search of Hope. O never may such vile Machine Be once in Celia's Chamber seen! ***
And up exhales a greasy Stench, For which you curse the careless Wench; So Things, which must not be exprest, When plumpt into the reeking Chest, Send up an excremental Smell To taint the Parts from whence they fell. The Pettycoats and Gown perfume, Which waft a Stink round every Room. Thus finishing his grand Survey, Disgusted Strephon stole away Repeating in his amorous Fits, Oh! Celia, Celia, Celia shits!
But Vengeance, Goddess never sleeping, Soon punish'dStrephon for his Peeping; His foul Imagination links Each Dame he sees with all her Stinks *** I pity wretched Strephon blind to all the Charms of Female Kind; Should I the Queen of Love refuse, Because she rose from stinking Ooze? *** If Strephon would but stop his Nose; (Who now so impiously blasphemes Her Ointments, Daubs, and Paints and Creams, Her Washes, Slops, and every Clout, With which he makes so foul a Rout;) He soon would learn to think like me, And bless his ravisht Sight to see Such Order from Confusion sprung, Such gaudy Tulips rais'd from Dung.