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Introduction to ArcInfo (Workstation)

Introduction to ArcInfo (Workstation). Getting started with ArcInfo. ArcInfo subsystems. ArcInfo data types. Supported formats. The coverage. Basic unit for vector data Can be point, line, polygon Or region. Linking features and attributes.

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Introduction to ArcInfo (Workstation)

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  1. Introduction to ArcInfo(Workstation)

  2. Getting started with ArcInfo

  3. ArcInfo subsystems

  4. ArcInfo data types • Supported formats

  5. The coverage • Basic unit for vector data • Can be point, line, polygon • Or region

  6. Linking features and attributes • Because every feature has a unique identifier, the uniqueness of each feature is guaranteed even if it shares attributes or spatial coordinates with another feature.

  7. The workspace • A directory (folder) • Used in an ArcInfo session • Contains geo datasets and an INFO


  9. The geographic database • Core of a GIS • Completeness • Accuracy • Spatial data • Attribute data

  10. Operating ArcInfo • Arctools (buttons+menus) • Limited to functions included • Command-driven interface • Customized/automated by AML • Open Development Environment (ODE) • Visual Basics, C, C++, Delphi, Power Builder

  11. ArcInfo Commands Syntax rules

  12. ArcInfo command example Arc: USAGE CLEAN Usage: CLEAN <in_cover> {out_cover} {dangle_length} {fuzzy_tolerance}{POLY|LINE} Arc: CLEAN STREET STREET2 # # LINE

  13. Getting help for ArcInfo • Get Usage by typing the command • No argument • Good habit to do that Arc: BUILD Usage: BUILD <cover> {POLY|LINE|POINT|NODE|ANNO.subclass} Arc: COMMANDS ….. Arc: COMMANDS B BATCH BUFFER BUILD

  14. ARC Macro Language (AML) • Use to communicate with the ARC system • Full programming capabilities • ArcInfo commands + OS commands • AML elements: • Directives • Functions • Variables

  15. AML directives • Instruct AML to perform a specific operation • Start with an ampersand (&) • Examples: • Arc: &RUN my.aml • Executes an AML program • Arc: &MENU my.menu • Opens an AML menu • Arc: &TERM 9999 • Sets the terminal type for AML menus

  16. AML functions • A function performs text substitution • The function name appears in [] • A function can return • A number • A character string • A Boolean value • Returned value can be used further Arc: BUILD [response ‘Enter the coverage to BUILD’] POLY Arc: BUILD [getcov * -line]

  17. AML Variables • A way to store dynamic information • Variable types: • Character strings • Integers • Real numbers • Boolean expressions • &SETVAR – to set a variable’s value • Examples: Arc: &SETVAR COV = LANDUSE Arc: &SV COV [response ‘enter cov name:’] Arc: BUILD %COV% POLY

  18. Summary • Subsystems • Data formats: raster and vector • ArcInfo workspace, INFO directory • Commands, ArcTools • AML: • directives, • functions, • Variables • ArcDoc and Command Usage

  19. ArcInfo Data Coverages

  20. Topology • A mathematical procedure that determines these for geographic features • Spatial properties • Spatial relationships

  21. Topology-Spatial Property ArcInfo uses the inherent topologic relationships of lines and polygons to provide extensive geographic analysis capabilities.

  22. Arc-node topology

  23. Polygon-arc topology

  24. Coverage features • Coverages are either points, lines, or polygons • A coverage can be both a line coverage and a polygon coverage • Annotation • Descriptive text associated with other geographic features • E.g. street names, soil types

  25. Feature attribute tables • FATs are INFO files • Each object is associated with a record in an FAT • A coverage may have more than one FAT (e.g. a PAT, AAT, & NAT)

  26. Records and feature identifiers • RECNO – internal record number • COVER# - ArcInfo assigned ID • COVER-ID – user assigned ID

  27. Points

  28. Arcs

  29. Nodes

  30. Polygons

  31. Features with subclasses

  32. Routes • A coverage can contain multiple route systems • Each is a separate subclass • Each is made up of sections • Each section is made up of arcs or portions of arcs

  33. Route events Events are located using the route’s measure units and the route contains sections that are associated to the arcs which contain the actual coordinate information.

  34. Regions Regions contain attribute information but do not contain spatial or coordinate information. Spatial information is determined from the underlying polygons that make up the region.

  35. Annotation Is a feature type Does not represent geography of a feature Can be associated with other existing feature types Or as independent of any feature

  36. Summary • Topology in ArcInfo coverage • Nodes, • points, • lines, • polygons, • regions, • subclasses

  37. Exercises • Ex1 – Understanding spatial relationships • Ex2 – Introduction to GIS functions • Ex3 - Use the ArcInfo help system • Ex4 - Operate ArcInfo (commands, AML) • Ex5 - Operate ArcInfo (ArcTools)

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