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A Model of school system to develop the school-based curriculumand support CPD using reflection and action research Tadashi ASADA Waseda University Rieko IWAHAMA Akashi Kindergarten attached to Kobe University
Problem Schools should have autonomy, therefore all the schools teachers need to know how to develop new learning. In Japan • Each school had to develop new learning units by itself after National Curriculum Reform in 1999 • ‘Kounai-ken’, a kind of in-service teacher training system, has focused on the professional development for the individual teacher, rather than enabling curriculum development. • So, each school has to establish the supportive and the collaborative system for its curriculum development.
Details of the supportive and collaborative system since 2000 in Akashi laboratory school (kindergarten, elementary school, secondary school attached to Kobe Univ.) 2000-1 Reflective thinking program A university staff, who specialized in teacher education and educational technology, introduced Akashi to doing reflective thinking after lessons with making use of videos. The reflective thinking program was held in Akashi on 6 occations as part of ‘Kounai-ken’.
How to do reflective thinking after lessons with making use of videos Practitioner Why did you do the teaching in this situation?’ ’How did you interpret this teaching situation? Prompter observers
2001-2 reflection cardswriting a kind of journal keeping (writing) method All of our school’s teachers wrote the reflection cards based on our own practice about we remembered after lessons every day. What child thinks of ? What child enjoys ? What causes child’s learning ? etc. What student(s) learned Interpretation of the facts concrete situation (child’s face, eye murmur etc) learning activities etc The facts Reflection Cards
Make The Table of Learning process We made the 10 tables of learning process from the age of 3 to 15. Table of learning process Accumulation of what the student learned What student(s) learned Interpretation of the facts We arranged cards according to the student age in each category and grasped the process of what the student’s learning from 3 to15 We classified based on identifying what the student learned and created 10 categories The facts Reflection Cards we wrote totally about 4000 in this year.
The Table of Learning processex. the Table of Human Relationship Learning horizontal line More detailed categories of human relationship Learning Pillar Learning process. Gap shows Difference in process Lateral line Student age An example of what student learned
~2006 Revise the Table based on the student learning and develop new learning units based on the revised Table Learningunit plan Reflection Learning Revise Interpretation The facts Practice Existing elementary school /kindergarten curriculum Revise The Table of learning process Revise
Purposes of this supportive and collaborative system ①To support the teacher’s professional development, especially focusing on reflective thinking and understanding action research cycle. ② To support school-based curriculum development. These two purposes are interdependent.
From the view point of professional development In Japanese culture • Teachers are open to the inside (uchi), but not to the outside (soto). • They need to open their own thoughts to the outside in order to reflect their own practice. This system requires the teachers to have the ability for reflection.
in Akashi laboratory school Double reflectiontogether The quality of reflection became better. we became aware of the meaning of the facts. Elementary school teacher Kindergarten Teacher Secondary school teacher Write reflection cards Classify cards Kindergarten Teacher Secondary school teacher doublereflection Elementary school teacher University teacher support School headmaster
From the view point of school-based curriculum development in Japan 6-3-3 educational system doesn’t always match to student’s development. At present the government regards the National Curriculum as the national minimum achievement, so that the government has encouraged all schools to develop their own school-based curriculum. For example the government asked the schools below ☆ to undertake research and develop the curriculum from the point of connection between kindergarten and elementary school, between elementary school and secondary school and so on. ☆ to develop the school-based curriculum with the integrated learning curriculum which had been established
Table of Learning process in Akashi laboratory school The facts New Learning unit Process of making Process of making Reflection Cards we can develop a new learning unit individually or in a group based on this Table. We share the reflective thinking among all the teachers.
The process of developing and improving a learning unit through reflection in Kounai-ken Kounai-ken Reflection Learning unit plan Why? learning Interpretation The facts Kounai-ken practice Revised Learning Unit plan Existingprimary/kindergarten curriculum Kounai-ken Improving The Table of Learning process The Table of Learning Process Kounai-ken
Case study: development of a learning unit between kindergarten and elementary schoolin Akashi laboratory school ‘Doro Dango’
Summary of the developed learning unit ‘Doro Dango: a mud dumpling’ for from the age of5(the last grade of the kindergarten) to the age of 6(the first grade of the elementary school) The Table of Learning Process Existing elementary school/kindergarten curriculum development of age 5~6 objectives/aims materials Season May and June early summer Mud, sand, water etc. in kindergarten and elementary school field
the flow of lesson 1 The introduction: Whole class learning activity To understand the common objective to make a mud dumpling A elementary school teacher shows a picture book about doro dango illustrated by himself. The age of 5 -6 children enjoy the picture book at kindergarten hall.
2 The development: Individual learning activity To make his/her mud dumpling according to one’s image, skill, awareness by trial and error Three kindergarten children has just started to make in the field. The aged 5 girl and the aged 6 boy are making a mud dumpling together under the tree.
They’re scouring red powder off bricks to make a red dumpling. Children created their original mud dumplings, such as a red one, a black one, a shiny one and so on.
3 The conclusion: Individual learning activity To reflect his/her own activity
Sharing information between kindergarten and elementary school • The key of this project was how it facilitated conversation among teachers. We’re able to share a lot of information and to contact with each other without the liaison conference.(Sometimes we talked face to face) The use of a mailing list
Learning Unit a mud dumpling Reflection objectives/aims Reflection Cards Children do not seem to teach something one another. the fact : the age of 5 child looked hard at the age of 6 child Reinterpretation with video Teacher’interpretation: He learned a lot from observation Why? A new awareness of child’s learning Improve a unit plan Awareness of the problem Improvement of support The fact after improvement
What to learn as the kindergarten teacher in developing a learning unit with elementary school teachers • The age of 5 children can do the project learning in May. • How they support children to clarify the task. • Many viewpoints of teaching materials • The age of 5 children can prepare for materials from their own needs by themselves.
What to learn as the elementary school teacher in developing a learning unit with kindergarten teachers • How to support individually and how to establish an effective learning environment for children to learn on their own initiative. • It is important for them to understand individuals in detail and clarify the goal and the way support for each child etc.
Collaboration in ML The order of utterance during project in ML
Conclusion • The school system required a reflective teaching system, and consequently, the mentors within the school developed the school-based curriculum and supported their own and their colleagues’ CPD.