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Steroid Hormones. Estrogen & Progesterone. The Female Body. Estrogen Development of secondary sex characteristics Growth of uterus during puberty Initial growth of endometrium during menstrual cycle. Progesterone Development of breasts during puberty

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steroid hormones

Steroid Hormones

Estrogen & Progesterone

the female body
The Female Body

Estrogen

Development of secondary sex characteristics

Growth of uterus during puberty

Initial growth of endometrium during menstrual cycle

Progesterone

Development of breasts during puberty

Growth of endometrium during menstrual cycle

Inhibition of uterine contractions during pregnancy

the ovarian cycle
The Ovarian Cycle

Follicular Stage

-GnRH induces release of LH & FSH

-Follicular growth & secretion of estradiol

Ovulation Stage

-Follicle bursts releasing mature ovum

-Broken follicle develops into corpus luteum

the ovarian cycle4
The Ovarian Cycle

Luteal Stage

-Corpus luteum secretes estrogen and progesterone

-Estrogen & progesterone decrease GnRH, LH & FSH levels inhibiting further ovulation

-No fertilization in 25 days leads to the endometrial deterioration

Fertilization

-Zygote produces an LH-like hormone so the corpus luteum can secrete estrogen & progestrone causing the endometrium to stay in place

aromatase inhibitors
Aromatase Inhibitors

Aromatase

- Cytochrome P-450 complex that catalyzes the conversion of androstenedione to estrone and testtosterone to estradiol

Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors

- Irreversible

- Act as natural substrate of aromatose

aromatase inhibitors8
Aromatase Inhibitors

Non-Steroidal Aromatase Inhibitors

- Reversible

- Enough estrogen displaces these

- Anastrozole (Shown)

estrogen receptor types
Estrogen Receptor Types

ER-α

- Found in uterus, vagina, breasts, and kidneys

- 595 amino acid residues

ER-β

- Found in ovaries, lungs, and bladder

- 485 amino acid residues

estrogen receptor domains
Estrogen Receptor Domains

A/B Domain

- Contains AF-1

C Domain

- DNA binding domain

- Contains 2 Zinc fingers

D Domain

- Translocates complex into nucleus

E Domain

- Hormone / Ligand binding region

- Contains AF-2

- Where ER-α and ER-β differ

estrogen receptor action
Estrogen Receptor Action

Agonists

- Cause helix 12 to sit snuggly over domain D

- AF-2 is capable of achieving transcription

Antagonists

- Rearrange formation of helix 12

- AF-2 is incapable of transcription

estrogen antagonists
Estrogen Antagonists

- Help treat and prevent estrogen dependent breast cancer

  • Characteristics of a good antagonist
  • - Substitution at 7-α with long alkyl
  • chain
  • - Substitution at 11-β with long, non
  • polar substituents

Fulvestrant

  • Characteristics of a bad antagonist
    • Substitution at 7-α with bulky chains, alcohol, carboxylic acid, aryl, or ester groups
    • Substitution at 11-β with polar groups
selective estrogen receptor modulators
Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators

Tamoxifen

- Antagonist to breast tissue

- Agonist to endometrium, liver, and bone tissue

Raloxifen

- Antagonist to breast and endometrial tissue

- Agonist to bone tissue

progestins
Progestins

Natural Progesterone

Synthetic Progestins

- Deletion of methyl group at carbon-13

- Addition of double bond between carbon 6 and 7

- Added substituent at carbon-12

oral contraceptive agents
Oral Contraceptive Agents
  • Believed to suppress the production of LH and FSH so that ovulation does not occur
  • Monophasic combinations such as Yasmin, contain the same amount of drug in each tablet ( 3 mg of drosperinone and 30 mg of ethinyl estradiol )
oral contraceptive agents16
Oral Contraceptive Agents
  • Biphasic and triphasic combinations mimic the variation of estrogen and progesterone levels naturally created by the body
    • Ortho-Tri-Cyclen
      • Tablet of 0.18 mg of norgestimate and 35 mg of ethinyl estradiol for 7 days
      • Tablet of 0.215 mg of norgestrimate and 35 mg of ethinyl estradiol for 7 days
      • Tablet of 0.25 mg of norgestrimate and 35 mg of ethinyl estradiol for 7 days
abortifacient mifepristone
Abortifacient : Mifepristone
  • Progesterone receptor antagonist of the uterus
  • Promotes shedding of endometrium, softening of the cervix, and uterine contractions leading to spontaneous abortion
  • Often used in conjunction with misoprostol prostoglandin
conclusion
Conclusion
  • The natural steroid hormones estrogen and progesterone are produced in large quantities by our bodies.
  • Synthesized versions are important to the medical community because they provide hope for breast cancer patients, allow for contraception, and can be used for abortion.