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Steroid Hormones. Cholesterol Starting material. Steroid Sex Hormones. Androgens: male sex hormones synthesized in the testes responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics. Steroid Hormones. Among the synthetic anabolic steroids are:.

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Steroid Hormones

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Steroid Hormones


Starting material

steroid sex hormones
Steroid Sex Hormones
  • Androgens: male sex hormones
    • synthesized in the testes
    • responsible for the development of male secondary sex characteristics
steroid hormones
Steroid Hormones
  • Among the synthetic anabolic steroids are:

Prohormones, see p.515 Chemical Connections 20G

Why are these hormones of interest?

Do steroids really work? i.e. improve muscle mass

and performance? . . .

steroid sex hormones1
Steroid Sex Hormones
  • Estrogens: female sex hormones
    • synthesized in the ovaries from progesterone  testosterone . . . (aromatization) estradiol
    • responsible for the development of female secondary sex characteristics and control of the menstrual cycle
steroid sex hormones2
Steroid Sex Hormones

A woman's monthly cycle w/o the pill (Blue and Red solid lines)

  • Progesterone-like analogs are used in oral contraceptives:

they Make the body think it is Pregnant at all times. . .

 preventing folicle stimulation and ovulation. . .

A woman's monthly cycle on the pill (Blue and Red dashed lines)


Steady stream of Progesterone

required for implantation

and development of oocyte

Other pills block Progesterone

all together. . .e.g. RU- 486


Prevents egg from

staying implanted . .

Gets released. . .

steroid hormones1
Steroid Hormones
  • Adrenocorticoid hormones
    • synthesized in the adrenal cortex.
    • regulate metabolism of carbohydrates.
    • decrease inflammation.
    • involved in the reaction to stress.
bile salts
Bile Salts
  • Bile salts, the oxidation products of cholesterol.
    • synthesized in the liver, stored in the gallbladder, and secreted into the intestine where they emulsify dietary fats and aid in their absorption and digestion
other classes lipids prostaglandins thromboxanes leukotrienes
Other Classes Lipids: - Prostaglandins- Thromboxanes - Leukotrienes
  • Prostaglandins: a family of compounds that have the 20-carbon skeleton of prostanoic acid.
  • Not stored in tissues - synthesized from membrane-bound 20-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids in response to specific physiological triggers.
    • One such polyunsaturated fatty acid is arachidonic acid.
cox enzymes
COX Enzymes
  • The COX (cyclooxygenase) enzyme occurs in two forms:
  • 1. COX-1 catalyzes the normal physiological production of prostaglandins.
  • 2. COX-2 is responsible for the production of prostaglandins in inflammation.
    • Tissue is injured or damaged, special inflammatory cells invade the injured tissue and interact with resident cells, e.g. smooth muscle cells or skin.
    • This interaction activates COX-2

and prostaglandins are synthesized.

Aspirin helps relieve this anti-inflammatory response

By inhibiting the production of prostaglandins . . .

  • Thromboxanes are also derived from arachidonic acid.
    • Thromboxane A2 induces platelet aggregation and vasoconstriction.
    • Aspirin and other NSAIDs inhibit the synthesis of thromboxanes by inhibiting the COX enzyme.
challenge questions
Challenge Questions

How Does Aspirin prevent strokes

caused by blood clots in the brain?

NOTE: Doctors recommend 81mg/ day for people at risk

for Heart Attack or stroke. . .

  • Leukotrienes are also synthesized from arachidonic acid.
    • They occur mainly in leukocytes.
    • They produce muscle contractions, especially in the lungs and thereby can cause asthma-like attacks.
    • In this regard, they are 100 times more potent than histamine.
    • Several recently-developed anti-asthma drugs inhibit the synthesis of leukotrienes.