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DICT 301: Computer Networks Class 1: Networking Concepts. Dr. Md. Aminul Haque Akhand. Network Concept. Network Concept. A network may be: Traffic Human Social Computers Mobile Neuronal .

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network concept1
Network Concept
  • A network may be:
    • Traffic
    • Human
    • Social
    • Computers
    • Mobile
    • Neuronal
  • A network is a general term referring to a set of related elements or entities linked to each other.
  • The coexistence of these elements is defined by the communication or exchange processes performed within a structured environment.
network concept computer networks
Network Concept: Computer Networks
  • A computer network is a set of computers and devices interconnected to each other allowing the computers to communicate with each other and share resources and information.
  • Computers on a network can act as a client or a server.
  • A client is a computer that requests for resources.
  • A server is a computer that. controls and provides access to resources.
kuet network

Wireless Access

Point (WAP)

KUET Network

LAN

Router

Gateway

Switch of admin. building

Main Switch

Firewall

LAN

Switch of CE Dept.

Real IP Switch

Lab Switch

Switch of CSE Dept.

Proxy Server

Web Server

Mail Server

DNS Server

Central

Computer

Center

UTP Cable

Teacher

Student

Optical Fiber

Backbone

four elements of a network
Four Elements of a Network
  • Rules or agreements to govern the messages are sent, directed, received and interpreted
  • The messages or units of information that travel from one device to another
  • A means of interconnecting these devices – a medium that can transport the messages from one device to another
  • Devices on the network that exchange messages with each other
elements of a network rules protocols
Elements of a Network : Rules (Protocols)
  • Rules govern every step of the process, from the way cables are designed to the way the digital signals are sent.
  • These rules are called protocols, e.g. TCP/IP protocol stack
what is a protocol

TCP connection

response

Get http://www.awl.com/kurose-ross

Got the

time?

2:00

<file>

time

What is a protocol?

a human protocol and a computer network protocol:

Hi

TCP connection

request

Hi

Q: Other human protocols?

elements of a network messages data
Elements of a Network: Messages (Data)
  • Message is a generic term that encompasses text, voice or video information
  • The message must be converted to bits, binary coded digital signals, before they are transmitted on the medium
elements of a network medium

wireless

router

UTP cables

Wired connections

Wireless connections

Elements of a Network : Medium
  • Physically carries the message
  • Connects the devices
  • Can be wired or wireless
elements of a network networking devices
Elements of a Network : Networking Devices
  • End-user devices
    • desktop computer
    • server
    • notebook (or laptop)
    • IP phone
  • Networking devices
    • LAN switch
    • firewall
    • router
    • wireless router
non converged networks
Non-Converged Networks
  • In the past, every one of the services required a different technology to carry its particular communication signal
  • Each service has its own set of rules and standards
converged networks
Converged Networks
  • Convergence occurs when telephones, broadcasts (radio and TV), and computer communications all use the same rules, devices and media to transport messages
circuit switched connection oriented networks
Circuit Switched Connection-Oriented Networks
  • A physical, dedicated path or circuit is temporary setup between the source and destination
  • The circuit is maintained for the duration of the call
  • Early circuit-switched networks do not dynamically recover from drop circuits
packet switched connectionless networks base of today s internet
Packet Switched Connectionless Networks - base of Today's Internet
  • The entire message is broken into packets which are addressed and numbered
  • Any packets can be sent through the network using any available path
packet switching statistical multiplexing
Sequence of A & B packets does not have fixed pattern

 statistical multiplexing.

D

E

resource contention:

  • aggregate resource demand can exceed amount available
  • congestion: packets queue, wait for link use
  • store and forward: packets move one hop at a time
    • Node receives complete packet before forwarding
Packet Switching: Statistical Multiplexing

each end-end data stream divided into packets

  • user A, B packets share network resources
  • each packet uses full link bandwidth
  • resources used as needed

10 Mb/s

Ethernet

C

A

statistical multiplexing

1.5 Mb/s

B

queue of packets

waiting for output

link

network architecture1
Network Architecture
  • Refers to the conceptual plans on which a physical network is built
  • Must support a wide range of applications and services
  • Four basic characteristics of the network architecture
    • fault tolerance
    • scalability
    • quality of service
    • security
fault tolerance
Fault Tolerance
  • A fault tolerant network limits the impact of hardware or software failure
    • recover quickly when a failure occurs
    • depend on redundant links, or paths, between the source and destination of a message
    • redundant connections allow for alternate paths
scalability
Scalability
  • A scalable network can expand quickly to support new users and applications without impacting the performance of the service being delivered to existing users
  • Depends on a hierarchical layered design for the physical infrastructure and logical architecture
internet structure
Internet Structure
  • The Internet is a hierarchical structure of interconnected networks

---- Internet: A Network of Networks

  • Many individual networks that provide Internet connectivity cooperate to follow accepted standards and protocols
    • new products can integrate with and enhance the existing infrastructure
quality of service qos
Quality of Service (QoS)
  • QoS refers to the mechanism that manage congested network traffic
  • Congestion is caused when the demand on the network exceeds the available capacity
  • Some constraints on network resources cannot be avoided
  • technology limitations
  • cost
  • local availability of high-bandwidth services
security
Security
  • The Internet has become a widely accessible means of business and personal communications
    • the same environment that attracts legitimate business, however, also attracts scam artists and vandals
  • Tools and procedures are being implemented to combat inherent security flaws in the network architecture
network security concerns
Network Security Concerns
  • Network infrastructure security
    • physical securing of devices that provide network connectivity and preventing unauthorized access to the management software that resides on them
  • Content security
    • protecting the information contained within the packets being transmitted over the network and the information stored on network attached devices
    • tools to provide security for the content of individual messages must be implemented on top of the underlying protocols
security measures
Security Measures
  • Prevent unauthorized disclosure or theft of information
    • ensure confidentiality
  • Prevent unauthorized modification of information
    • maintain communication integrity
  • Prevent denial of service (DoS)
    • ensure availability
confidentiality integrity and availability optional
Confidentiality, Integrity and Availability (Optional)
  • Ensuring confidentiality
    • allowing only the intended and authorized users to read the data
    • a strong system for user authentication
    • encrypting the content
  • Maintaining communication integrity
    • data integrity is the assurance that the information has not been altered in transmission, from source to destination
    • source integrity is the assurance that the identity of the sender has been validated
    • using digital signatures and hashing algorithms
  • Ensuring availability
    • resources are available to authorized users
    • virus software and firewalls are used to combat virus and DoS attacks
    • building fully redundant network infrastructures
trends in networking optional
Trends in Networking (Optional)
  • Increasing number of mobile users
    • a demand for more mobile connectivity to data networks
  • New and more capable devices
    • functions performed by cell phones, personal digital assistants, organizers and pagers are converging into single handheld devices with continuous connectivity to providers of services and content
  • Increased availability of services
  • new services are introduced and older services are enhanced to meet user demands
types of network network infrastructures
Types of Network/ Network Infrastructures
  • Network infrastructures can vary in terms of:
    • the size of the area covered
    • the number of users connected
    • the number and type of services available
  • Common types of network infrastructures
    • local area networks (LANs)
    • wide area networks (WANs)
    • Internet
    • Peer-to-Peer Networks
    • Client/Server Networks
    • LAN- Local Area Network
    • WAN- Wide Area Network
    • MAN- Metropolitan Area Network
  • Public Network
  • Private Network
peer to peer networks
Peer-to-Peer Networks
  • The simplest form of a network is a peer-to-peer network. In a peer-to-peer network, every computer can communicate directly with every other computer.
  • Each computer can be configured to share only some of its resources and prevent access to other resources.
  • Every computer is capable of sending and receiving information to and from every other computer.
client server networks
Client/Server Networks
  • A network that uses a server to enable clients to share data, data storage space, and devices is known as a client/server network.
local area networks lans
Local Area Networks (LANs)
  • A LAN usually spans a small geographical area
    • provides services and applications to people within a common organizational structure, such as a home, building or campus
    • usually administered by a single organization
    • security and access control policies are enforced on the network level
wide area networks wans
Wide Area Networks (WANs)
  • Telecommunications service provider (TSP) networks are used to interconnect an organization’s LANs that are located geographically far apart
    • TSPs operate large regional networks that span long distances
    • the TSP networks are referred to as wide area networks (WANs)
  • WANs use specifically designed network devices to make the interconnections between LANs
the internet a network of networks
The Internet – A Network of Networks
  • A need to communicate with a resource on another network
    • sending an e-mail to a friend in another country
    • accessing news or products on a website
    • instant messaging with someone in another city
  • Internetwork
    • a global mesh of interconnected networks
    • owned by large public and private organizations
    • the Internet is an example of a publicly-accessible internetwork
  • Intranet
    • private connection of LANs and WANs that belongs to an organization
    • accessible only by the organization’s members, employees, or others with authorization
the internet
The Internet
  • LANs and WANs may be connected into internetworks
network accessories
Network Accessories
  • Computing Devices: Servers, Work Stations, Hosts
    • Server: Mail, Proxy, DNS, Web, Database etc.
    • Host/ Workstation: Computer, Mobile, PDA, Notebook etc.
  • Switching Devices: Router, Switch, Bridge, Hub, NIC Card, Modem, Getaway, Multiplexer, Repeater/ Signal Regenerator etc.
  • Connecting Medium: UTP, RJ 45 connector, Optical fiber, Wireless
  • Security Device: Firewall
routers

hub

switch

switch

router

router

Routers
  • Primary devices used to interconnect networks
    • each port on a router connects to a different network and routes packets between networks
  • Have the ability to break up broadcast domains (BD) and collision domains (CD)
  • Used to interconnect networks that use different technologies
    • LAN and WAN interfaces
switches
Switches
  • A switch receives a frame and regenerates each bit of the frame on to the appropriate destination port
  • Used to segment a network into multiple collision domains
  • Each port on the switch creates a separate collision domain
    • creates a point-to-point logical topology to the device on each port
    • provides dedicated bandwidth on each port
  • Can be used to interconnect network segments of different speeds
slide44
Hubs
  • A hub receives a signal, regenerates it, and sends the signal over all ports
    • ports use a shared bandwidth approach
    • reduces the LAN performance due to collisions and recovery
    • maintains a single collision domain

Used in a small LAN that requires low throughput requirements or when finances are limited

Less expensive than a switch

device selection factors
Device Selection Factors
  • Cost
  • Speed and types of ports/interfaces
  • Expandability
  • Manageability
  • Additional features and services
factors to consider in choosing a switch
Factors to Consider in Choosing a Switch
  • Cost
    • its capacity and features
    • network management capabilities, embedded security technologies and optional advanced switching technologies
  • Simple “cost per port” calculation
    • deploy one large switch at a central location
    • cost savings may be offset by the expense from the longer cables
  • Compare the cost of deploying a number of smaller switches connected by a few long cables to a central switch
factors to consider in choosing a switch cont
Factors to Consider in Choosing a Switch (cont…)
  • Investing in redundancy
    • a secondary switch to operate concurrently with the primary central switch
    • additional cabling to allow the physical network to continue its operation even if one device fails
speed and type of ports interfaces

Purchasing decisions

    • just enough ports for today’s needs
    • mixture of UTP speeds
    • both UTP and fiber ports
Speed and Type of Ports (Interfaces)
factors to consider in choosing a router
Factors to Consider in Choosing a Router
  • Expandability
    • modular devices have expansion slots that provide the flexibility to add new modules as requirement evolve
    • basic number of fixed ports as well as expansion slots
  • Media
    • additional modules for fiber optics can increase the cost
  • Operating system features
    • different versions of the operating system support certain features and services
    • security, quality of service, voice over IP, routing multiple Layer 3 protocols, NAT and DHCP
bridge optional
Bridge (Optional)
  • Bridges are used to divide larger networks into smaller sections.
  • They do this by sitting between two physical network segments and managing the flow of data between the two.
  • By looking at the MAC address of the devices connected to each segment, bridges can elect to forward the data (if they believe that the destination address is on another interface), or block it from crossing (if they can verify that it is on the interface from which it came).
gateways
Gateways
  • Any device that translatesone data format to another is called a gateway.
  • Some examples of gateways include a router that translates data from one network protocol to another, a bridge that converts between two networking systems, and a software application that converts between two dissimilar formats.
  • The key point about a gateway is that only the data format is translated, not the data itself.
  • A gateway is a network node that allows you to gain entrance into a network and vice versa.
  • In computer networking, a gateway is a node (a router) on a TCP/IP network that serves as an access point to another network.
  • A network gateway joins two networks together through a combination of hardware and software.
default gateway
Default Gateway

Default gateway  

  • The default gateway is the device, usually a router, that passes network data from the local network to other networks.
  • In most cases in basic networks, the important part of the default gateway is the IP address that is assigned to the device. This is often referred to as the gateway IP.
  • Default gateways serve an important role in TCP/IP networking. They provide a default route for TCP/IP hosts to use when communicating with other hosts on remote networks.
  • For internet browsing from KUET LAN default gateway is the port of Proxy Server.
network cards nic
Network Cards (NIC)
  • Network cards, also called Network Interface Cards (NIC), are devices that enable computers to connect to the network.
  • Each and every NIC has unique MAC address
  • IP address also require to communicate, IP address depends on network .
wireless access points wap
Wireless Access Points (WAP)
  • Wireless access points (APs) area transmitter and receiver (transceiver) device used to create a wireless LAN (WLAN).
  • APs are typically a separate network device with a built-in antenna, transmitter, and adapter.
  • APs use the wireless infrastructure network mode to provide a connection point between WLANs and a wired Ethernet LAN.
  • APs also typically have several ports allowing a way to expand the network to support additional clients.
modems
Modems
  • A modem, short for modulator/demodulator, is a device that converts the digital signals generated by a computer into analog signals that can travel over conventional phone lines.
  • The modem at the receiving end converts the signal back into a format the computer can understand.
  • Modems can be used as a means to connect to an ISP or as a mechanism for dialing up to a LAN.
  • Modems can be internal add-in expansion cards, external devices that connect to the serial or USB port of a system, PCMCIA cards designed for use in laptops, or proprietary devices designed for use on other devices such as portables and handhelds.
firewalls
Firewalls
  • A firewall is a networking device, either hardware or software based, that controls access to your organizations network.
  • It protect data and resources from an outside threat.
  • To do this, firewalls are typically placed at entry/exit points of a network for example, placing a firewall between an internal network and the Internet.
mac addresses 6 byte unique
MAC Addresses (6 Byte unique)
  • A MAC address is a unique 6-byte address that is burned into each network interface or more specifically, directly into the PROM chip on the NIC.
  • The number must be unique, as the MAC address is the basis by which almost all network communication takes place.
  • No matter which networking protocol is being used, the MAC address is still the means by which the network interface is identified on the network.
ipv4 address
IPv4 Address
  • Each device on a network must be uniquely defined.
  • The packets of the communication need to be identified with the source and destination addresses of the two end systems
  • IPv4 is 32 bits in length and difficult for human to remember. Therefore, represent IPv4 addresses using dotted decimal format.
  • 10101100.00010000.00000100.00010100 (172.16.4.20)
binary number system
Binary Number System
  • Decimal: 10 digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
  • Octal: 8 digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  • Hexadecimal: 16 digit 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
  • Binary: 2 digit 0 1

Computer only understand binary

Decimal: 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25

Binary: 0 1 10 11 100 101 110 111 1000 1001 1010 1011 1100 1101 1110 1111

{0,1} each called a bit , Binary Digit = Bit

8 bit = 1 Byte

1000 Byte (1024) = 1 Kilobyte

1000 Kilobyte (1024) = 1 Megabyte

1000 Megabyte (1024) = 1 Gigabyte

1000 Gigabyte (1024) = 1 Terabyte …

  • MAC- Hexadecimal
  • IP- Decimal
types of media
Types of Media
  • UTP (Category 5, 5e, 6 and 7)
  • Fiber optics
  • Wireless
  • Modern networks primarily use three types of media
    • copper wires within cables
    • glass or plastic fibers (fiber optic cable)
    • wireless transmission
  • The signal encoding method is different for each media type
    • data is encoded into electrical pulses on copper wires
    • fiber optic transmissions rely on pulses of light, within either infrared or visible light ranges
    • patterns of electromagnetic waves represent the various bit values in wireless transmission
choosing a media
Choosing a Media
  • Cable length
    • does the cable need to span across a room or from a building to a building?
  • Cost
    • does the budget allow for using a more expensive media type?
  • Bandwidth
    • does the technology used with the media provide adequate bandwidth?
  • Ease of installation
    • does the implementation team have the ability to install the cable or is vendor required?
  • Susceptible to EMI/RFI
    • is the local environment going to interfere with the signal?
cable length
Cable Length
  • Total length of cable
    • all cables from the end devices in the work area to the intermediary device, usually a switch, in the telecommunication room
    • cable from the devices to the wall plug, through the building from the wall plug to the cross-connect (or patch panel) and from the patch panel to the switch
  • Signal attenuation and exposure to possible interference increase with cable length
    • the horizontal cabling length for UTP needs to stay within the recommended maximum distance of 90 meters
cable cost and bandwidth
Cable Cost and Bandwidth
  • Cost
    • depend on media type such as copper or fiber optic
    • budget for fiber-optic cabling
    • installation costs for fiber are significantly higher
    • match the performance needs of the users with the cost of the equipment and cabling to achieve the best cost/performance ratio
  • Bandwidth
    • devices in a network have different bandwidth requirements
    • select a media that will provide high bandwidth, and can grow to meet increased bandwidth requirements and newer technologies
components of the network
Components of the Network
  • Devices (PCs, intermediary devices)
  • Media (Cable or wireless)
  • Services and processes (Software/ Protocol)
network software
Network Software
  • Services (Protocol, HTTP Service, SMTP service, FTP Service)
  • Processes
end devices and their roles
End Devices and Their Roles
  • In the context of a network, end devices are referred to as hosts.
  • A host device is either the sender or receiver
  • To distinguish one host from another, each host on a network is identified by an address.
  • A host (sender) uses the address of the destination host to specify where the message should be sent.
  • Software determines the role of a host. A host can be a client, server or both
intermediary devices and their roles
Intermediary Devices and Their Roles
  • Examples:

- Network Access Devices (Hubs, switches, and wireless access points)

- Internetworking Devices (routers)

- Communication Servers and Modems

- Security Devices (firewalls)

network media
Network Media
  • Communication across a network is carried on a medium
  • 3 types of Media:
  • - Metallic wires within cables
  • - Glass or plastic fibers (fiber optic cable)
  • Wireless transmission
rules that govern communications
Rules that Govern Communications
  • Communication in networks is governed by pre-defined rules called protocols.
  • A group of inter-related protocols that are necessary to perform a communication function is called a protocol suite. These protocols are implemented in software and hardware that is loaded on each host and network device
  • Networking protocols suites describe processes such as:

- The format or structure of the message

- The process by which networking devices share information about pathways with other networks

- How and when error and system messages are passed between devices

- The setup and termination of data transfer sessions

  • Individual protocols in a protocol suite may be vendor-specific and proprietary.
protocol suites industry standard
Protocol Suites & Industry Standard
  • Many of the protocols that comprise a protocol suite reference other widely utilized protocols or industry standards
  • Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) or the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)
  • The use of standards in developing and implementing protocols ensures that products from different manufacturers can work together for efficient communications
internet protocol stack

application

transport

network

link

physical

Internet protocol stack
  • application: supporting network applications
    • FTP, SMTP, STTP
  • transport: host-host data transfer
    • TCP, UDP
  • network: routing of datagrams from source to destination
    • IP, routing protocols
  • link: data transfer between neighboring network elements
    • PPP, Ethernet
  • physical: bits “on the wire”
the interaction of protocols
The Interaction of Protocols

Will learn more in TCP/IP model

  • Application protocol – HTTP. HTTP defines the content and formatting of the requests and responses exchanged between the client and server
  • Transport Protocol – TCP. TCP divides the HTTP messages into smaller segments. It is also responsible for controlling the size and rate of message exchange.
  • Internetwork Protocol – IP. It encapsulating segments into packets, assigning the appropriate addresses, and selecting the best path to the destination host.
  • Network Access Protocol – Protocols for data link management and the physical transmission of data on the media.
encapsulation

network

link

physical

link

physical

M

M

Ht

Ht

M

M

Hn

Hn

Hn

Hn

Ht

Ht

Ht

Ht

M

M

M

M

Hl

Hl

Hl

Hl

Hl

Hl

Hn

Hn

Hn

Hn

Hn

Hn

Ht

Ht

Ht

Ht

Ht

Ht

M

M

M

M

M

M

Encapsulation

source

message

application

transport

network

link

physical

segment

datagram

frame

switch

destination

application

transport

network

link

physical

router

network topology1
Network Topology

A physical topology is the physical layout, or pattern, of the nodes on a network.

  • There are two basic categories of network topologies:
  • Physical topologies
  • Logical topologies
bus topology
Bus Topology
  • A bus network topology is a network architecture in which a set of clients are connected via a shared communications line/cables, called a bus. Bus networks are the simplest way to connect multiple clients, but may have problems when two clients want to transmit at the same time on the same bus.
  • Advantages:
  • Ease of installation.
  • Simple and cheap.
  • If one computer fails it does not affect the other computers.
  • Printers can be shared.
  • Minimizing the amount cable used connecting the network.
  • Disadvantages:
  • If the main cable fails, all the other sources will die
  • Reconfiguration, fault isolation and installation of new devices tend to be difficult
  • A fault along the shared communication line stops all transmissions in the network.
ring topology

A ring network is a network topology in which each node connects to exactly two other nodes, forming a single continuous pathway for signals through each node - a ring. Data travels from node to node, with each node along the way handling every packet.

Ring Topology
  • Advantages
  • Very orderly network where every device has access to the token and the opportunity to transmit
  • Performs better than a bus topology under heavy network load
  • Does not require a central node to manage the connectivity between the computers
  • Point to point line configuration makes it easy to identify and isolate faults.
  • Disadvantages:
  • One malfunctioning workstation can create problems for the entire network
  • Moving, adding and changing the devices can affect the network
  • Communication delay is directly proportional to number of nodes in the network
  • Bandwidth is shared on all links between devices
  • More difficult to configure than a Star
star topology

A star network consists of one central switch, hub or computer, which acts as a conduit/ agent to transmit messages. This consists of a central node, to which all other nodes are connected.

Star Topology
  • Advantages
  • Better performance: star topology prevents the passing of data packets through an excessive number of nodes. Although this topology places a huge overhead on the central hub.
  • Isolation of devices: Each device is inherently isolated by the link that connects it to the hub.
  • Benefits from centralization: As the central hub is the bottleneck, increasing its capacity, or connecting additional devices to it, increases the size of the network very easily.
  • Easy to detect faults and to remove parts.
  • No disruptions to the network when connecting or removing devices.
  • Installation and configuration is easy

Disadvantages

High dependence of the system on the functioning of the central hub. Failure of the central hub renders the network inoperable

extended star topology
Extended Star Topology

A type of network topology in which a network that is based upon the physical star topology has one or more repeaters/ switch between the central node

hierarchical tree topology

Tree topology is a combination of Bus and Star topology.

Hierarchical/ Tree Topology
  • Advantages
  • It is scalable. Secondary nodes allow more devices to be connected to a central node.
  • Point to point connection of devices.
  • Having different levels of the network makes it more manageable hence easier fault identification and isolation.
  • Disadvantages
  • Maintenance of the network may be an issue when the network spans a great area.
  • Since it is a variation of bus topology, if the backbone fails, the entire network is crippled.
mesh topology

Mesh networking (topology) is a type of networking where each node must not only capture and disseminate its own data, but also serve as a relay for other nodes, that is, it must collaborate to propagate the data in the network.

Mesh Topology
  • Advantages
  • Point to point line configuration makes identification and isolation of faults easy.
  • Messages travel through a dedicated line
  • In the case of a fault in one link, only the communication between the two devices sharing the link is affected.
  • The use of dedicated links ensures that each connection carries its own data load

Disadvantages

If the network covers a great area, huge investments may be required due to the amount of cabling and ports required for input and output devices. It is a rare choice of a network connection due to the costs involved.

hands on1
Hands-on

Testing Connectivity with Ping

hands on2

IP and MAC address checking with ipconfig /all

Hands-on

PC/ Host Name

MAC address

IP address

Default Gateway