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Progressive Era: THE AGE OF THE CITY. America begins life as an agrarian society but rapidly begins to urbanize. Topics. Urbanization Population Growth Immigration and Migrations The Ethnic City Urban Landscape 1) Public Space 2) Housing Problems of Urban Life

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progressive era the age of the city

Progressive Era:THE AGE OF THE CITY

America begins life as an agrariansociety but rapidly begins to urbanize.

  • Urbanization
  • Population Growth
  • Immigration and Migrations
  • The Ethnic City
  • Urban Landscape

1) Public Space

2) Housing

  • Problems of Urban Life
  • Political Machines
  • Mass Consumption
  • Leisure
  • Culture in the City
the lure of the city page 500
The Lure of the City:page 500
  • “We cannot all live in cities. Yet nearly all seemed determined to do so.”

Horace Greely

  • More and better- paying jobs
  • Immigrants
  • Better transportation
  • Declining farm regions of east

West, cities of midwest and east

immigrants in the city
Immigrants in the City
  • Benefits of ethnic neighborhoods
  • Those who arrived with a skill did better than those who did not
  • Strength of ethnic ties vs. assimilation
  • African – Americans, Asians and Mexicans suffered the most discrimination
  • Changing Gender Patterns
the urban landscape a study in contrasts
The Urban Landscape: A study in contrasts

Jacob Riis photo

Washington Square North, 1890

the urban landscape public space
The Urban Landscape:Public Space
  • Reformers, planners and architects call for more ordered vision of the city
  • City Planning: parks, libraries, museums
housing the well to do
Housing the Well -to -do
  • Due to cheap labor, easy access to tools more people are able to buy homes
  • Beacon Hill, Nob Hill, Society Hill, Fifth Ave
the urban landscape cities grow upward as well as outward
The Urban Landscape: Cities grow upward as well as outward
  • Steel girder construction
  • Louis Sullivan
  • Frank Lloyd Wright will later apply techniques to shorter buildings
problems of urban life
Problems of Urban Life
  • Fires
  • Disease –typhoid, cholera due to poor sanitation
  • Air pollution
  • Poverty
  • High crime rates
great chicago fire 1871 supposedly started by mrs o leary s cow
Great Chicago Fire 1871: supposedly started by “Mrs. O’Leary’s Cow”
  • Whole midwest was very dry
  • Streets were made of wood which helped fire spread
  • 4 miles long area burned
  • Sanitation standards were low
  • Raw sewage in the streets contaminated the water
  • Sewer systems not complete until into the 20th century.
urban poverty
Urban Poverty
  • Private and public agencies offered limited relief, thinking it would cause dependence
  • Salvation Army
  • Idea of self-improvement limited attention to sources of poverty
fear of the city crime and violence
Fear of the City/Crime and Violence
  • High crime rates
  • Alienating
  • Anonymous
  • Limited connection with work
  • Sister Carrie
the political machine and the boss
The Political Machine and the Boss
  • Became a source of assistance for new immigrants, those who needed jobs and those in trouble with the law- often in return for votes.
  • Would give supporters government jobs
the rise of mass consumption
The Rise of Mass Consumption
  • Coincides with the rise of the middle class = demand for products
  • Chain stores, mail order products
  • Woolworth
  • The A & P
  • Goods no longer being made at home, but instead purchased in the consumer economy
baseball the american national game
Baseball: The American National Game
  • Baseball clubs
  • 1903: First modern World Series. Red Sox beat the Pittsburg Pirates
  • Working class game
mass communication
Mass communication
  • Newspapers become more important
  • American journalism becomes a profession